Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a newly developed nanocomplex formed of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin and 1% titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) after distinct complexation periods (12/72 h) on demineralization of bovine enamel in vitro. Enamel blocks (n=60) were allocated in different groups: Mili-Q water, hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin, 1% TiF4, hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + 1% TiF4 after 12 h of complexation and hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + 1% TiF4 after 72 h of complexation. The samples were evaluated by surface microhardness, cross-sectional microhardness and micro-CT. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX) were also obtained. Hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + 1% TiF4 after 12 h complexation resulted in lower percentage of surface microhardness loss compared to Mili-Q water, hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin, 1% TiF4 and hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + 1% TiF4 after 72 h of complexation group, with a large effect size (from 1.307 to 2.943) and high power (84.9 to 99%). All groups resulted in similar integrated mineral loss (ΔZ) obtained by both internal microhardness and micro-CT techniques. Enamel treated with TiF4 and TiF4 + hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin groups showed a TiO2 glaze-layer, while EDX evaluation identified Ti. The solution containing the inclusion complex of hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin + TiF4 with 12 h of complexation period demonstrated a significant ability to reduce surface demineralization of sound enamel under an artificial cariogenic challenge.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da 1-etil-3- (3-dimetilaminopropil) carbodiimida (EDC) na resistência de união de pinos de fibra de vidro em canais radiculares obturados com diferentes cimentos endodônticos. Setenta e oito pré-molares inferiores foram obturados com três cimentos endodônticos (n=26): Endofill (END), AH Plus (AHP) e Endosequence BC Sealer (EBS). Após o preparo do espaço para pino, dois subgrupos formaram-se conforme a cimentação dos pinos (n=13): com EDC e sem EDC (controle - CON). Os espécimes foram submetidos ao teste pull-out, classificação do modo de falha e avaliação da superfície do canal radicular por microscopia eletrônica de varredura após o deslocamento. Quanto à força de resistência de união, uma diferença estatisticamente significativa ocorreu entre os subgrupos EDC e CON apenas no END (p=0,001). Não foi detectada diferença entre os subgrupos CON (p=0,339). Contudo, no subgrupo EDC, o AHP apresentou maiores valores (END versus AHP: p=0,001; AHP versus EBS: p=0,016). Acerca da classificação dos modos de falha, o escore 1 (≥50% de cimento) foi o mais comumente observado, exceto para END + EDC. Restos de cimentos endodônticos e cimentos resinosos foram encontrados no terço cervical, mas sem diferença estatística (p=0,269), enquanto no terço médio, houve diferença (p=0,004). Em conclusão, o EDC diminui a resistência de união quando associado ao cimento END, sem alterar o modo de falha entre o cimento resinoso e o pino de fibra de vidro. O melhor desempenho foi observado quanto o EDC foi usado com o cimento AHP.
The investigations of the antibacterial actions, observed in ternary associations involving silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), chitosan and the antibiotics azithromycin (AZ), levofloxacin (LE) or tetracycline (TE), against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains, were performed by in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing and checkerboard assays. The pH impact in the culture medium was carefully discarded, but preserving the best conditions for solubilizing chitosan. The synergistic antibacterial effects were observed in the most combinations of AgNPs, chitosan and antibiotic, leading to a reduction from 37 to 97% in the minimum inhibitory concentration of the drugs. The mechanisms for the enhanced antimicrobial effects were proposed based on the investigations of the adsorptions of the drugs on the silver surfaces through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy.
ABSTRACT: Feline night monkeys are very susceptible to stress and therefore the physical or chemical restraint should be carefully evaluated before any procedure. Anesthetic protocols can alter some physiological parameters, and electrocardiogram (ECG) is a commonly exam used for evaluation of the rhythm and heart rate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of four different protocols of restraining on ECG in Aotus azarae infulatus, in order to identify the best method of restraining in these primates. For that, we used 10 adult feline night monkeys, males, submitted to restraining protocols with the association tiletamine and zolazepam - (TZ), isoflurane (ISO), association ketamine and midazolam (CET) and physical restraint (CF). No differences were observed in the parameters wave and ECG complexes obtained in all groups tested; however, during the evaluation of the trace the animals of group CF showed a greater amount of change. It was concluded that the restraint protocols used did not change the values of the ECG, and it was not possible to consider the CF group as control due to more caused alterations than all other tested protocols.
RESUMO: Macacos-da-noite são muito susceptíveis ao estresse e por isso a contenção química ou física deve ser cuidadosamente avaliada antes de qualquer procedimento. Protocolos anestésicos podem alterar alguns parâmetros fisiológicos, sendo o eletrocardiograma (ECG) um exame muito utilizado para avaliação do ritmo e da frequência cardíaca. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de quatro diferentes protocolos de contenção sobre o ECG realizado em Aotus azarae infulatus. Para isso foram utilizados 10 animais, machos, adultos, submetidos à contenção com a associação tiletamina/zolazepam (TZ), isoflurano (ISO), associação cetamina e midazolam (CET) e contenção física (CF). Não foram observadas diferenças nos parâmetros de ondas e complexos obtidos no ECG em todos os grupos testados, no entanto, durante a avaliação do traçado os animais do grupo CF apresentaram uma quantidade maior de alterações. Concluiu-se que os protocolos de contenção utilizados não alteraram os valores do ECG e que não foi possível considerar o grupo CF como controle devido causar mais alterações do que todos os protocolos testados.
Background: Kinesio Taping® has been widely used in clinical practice. However, it is unknown whether this type of tape is more effective than placebo taping in patients with chronic lower back pain. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping® in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain against a placebo tape and a control group. Method: This is a 3-arm, randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Sixty patients with chronic non-specific low back pain were randomized into one of the three groups: Kinesio Taping® group (n=20), Micropore® (placebo) group (n=20) and control group (n=20). Patients allocated to both the Kinesio Taping® group and the placebo group used the different types of tape for a period of 48 hours. The control group did not receive any intervention. The outcomes measured were pain intensity (measured by an 11-point numerical rating scale) and disability (measured by the 24-item Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire). A blinded assessor measured the outcomes at baseline, 48 hours and 7 days after randomization. Results: After 48 hours, there was a statistically significant difference between the Kinesio Taping® group versus the control group (mean between-group difference = -3.1 points, 95% CI=-5.2 to -1.1, p=0.003), but no difference when compared to the placebo group (mean between-group difference= 1.9 points, 95% CI=-0.2 to 3.9, p=0.08). For the other outcomes no differences were observed. Conclusions: The Kinesio Taping® is not better than placebo (Micropore®) in patients with chronic low back pain.
The paper is a review of the literature on the ethnobotanical, chemical and pharmacological aspects of the species Cissampelos sympodialis Eichler, Menispermaceae, in order to assess its potential for the treatment of asthma. The aqueous infusion from the leaves of this Brazilian plant is used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory conditions, including colds, bronchitis and asthma. A multidisciplinary approach has led to the elucidation of the main chemical biomarkers and of the mechanism of action of the extract and its isolated constituents in animal models of inflammation and asthma. A comprehensive review of the literature on the species and its related chemical constituents was conducted using Pubmed, Web of Sciences, Lilacs, SciFinder, as well as conference proceedings. Retrieved literature data demonstrates that the aqueous fraction of the ethanolic extract from the leaves exerts an immunomodulatory activity in different animal models of asthma. This include an increase in the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, a decrease in the production of antigen-specific immunoglobulin, a decrease in mucus production and deposition in the airways, and a direct bronchodilator activity. These preclinical results clearly demonstrate the potential of this species for the treatment of asthma and points to the need for well-designed clinical trials to finally validate the traditional use of this herbal medicine.
The aim of the present study was to determine neurobehavioral and genotoxic activities of ethanol extract of Erythrina falcata Benth., Fabaceae, leaves on rats. Animals were treated with ethanol extract of E. falcata (100, 300 or 500 mg/kg; i.p.) and the open field and elevated plus-maze tasks were used as behavioral models to investigate a possible effect on the locomotor and exploratory activity and anxiety, respectively. Genotoxic effect was investigated using the Comet assay. Ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves decreased the number of crossings and rearings in the open field task and increased the latency to start locomotion, though it was not able to affect habituation to apparatus measured 24h after the first session. Behavioral parameters in the plus-maze test were not affected by E. falcata. Ethanol extract did not increase damage index and damage frequency in blood or brain, indicating no genotoxic effect. The results suggest that ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves was able to affect locomotion, exploration, and motivation of animals without anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect, indicating a possible depressant action on the central nervous system. Furthermore, the lack of DNA damage in brain is an indicative that ethanol extract of E. falcata leaves may not induce neurotoxic effects.
This paper reviews information on necropsies in stillborn and aborted fetuses from swine. Aspects dealt with include sampling collection, necropsy procedures, gross and histopathological findings, some of which are of little or no pathological significance but often observed in the routine diagnostic work and misinterpreted as real or important lesions.
Este artigo revisa dados relativos à realização de necropsia em fetos suínos abortados e natimortos. Aspectos descritos incluem coleta de material, procedimentos de necropsia, achados macroscópicos e histopatológicos alguns dos quais de pouco ou nenhum significado patológico são frequentemente observados numa rotina de diagnóstico e geralmente interpretados erroneamente como lesões reais ou de importância.
This study was carried out to evaluate levels of infection of bacteria involved in caries and oral streptococci and their colonization after use of mouthrinses with NaF, chlorhexidine and chlorhexidine plus NaF. Combination of chlorhexidine and fluoride was the only agent that reduced levels of Streptococcus mutans (group) for 30 days.
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os níveis de infecção de bactérias cariogênicas e estreptococos orais e sua colonização após uso de bochechos com NaF, clorexidina e clorexidina e NaF associados. Associação de clorexidina e NaF foi o único agente que reduziu os níveis de Streptococcus mutans (grupo) por 30 dias.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immune response in peripheral blood of patients with infective endocarditis. METHODS: We studied 10 patients with infective endocarditis, age range from 20 to 50 years-old, males and females, and 20 healthy subjects in the same age range. The diagnosis of the disease was based on the clinical picture, echocardiogram, and hemoculture based upon samples drawn and tested before the treatment started. The were no history of atopy or malnutrition, no autoimmune disease, and they were not using any immunosuppressant or antibiotic medication. RESULTS: The patients with endocarditis had significantly higher T and B lymphocyte, CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts, IgM and IgG serum levels, and C4 component of the complement than the control group; no significant difference concerning serum IgA and neutrophil oxidative metabolism; a significant decrease in C3, chemotaxis, and monocyte phagocytosis;cryoglobulins were detected in 66.6% of patients and they were formed by IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, and C4. CONCLUSION: The patients with infective endocarditis were immunocompetent in most sectors of immune response and, at a certain moment, an autoimmune component may be present.