ABSTRACT Propolis (bee glue) a product of Apis mellifera L. is a resinous mixture containing chiefly beeswax and resin harvested by bees from plant leaves, buds and exudates. Extracts of a propolis sample from Salitre, a municipality of Ceará state (northeast Brazil) were obtained with solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol). A chemical profile was carried out by GC–EI-MS and HPLC–DAD–ESI-MS/MS. Lupenone, lupeol, octanoic acid tetracosyl ester and octanoic acid hexacosyl ester were identified by GC–EI-MS. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by the DPPH and β-carotene discoloring methods, and anti-HIV activity by the in vitro inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest antioxidant and anti-HIV activity and was fractioned by column chromatography using silica gel and seven different eluents. The active fractions were submitted to semi preparative HPLC and the following compounds were isolated: caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, diprenylcinnamic acid, quercetin, naringenin, isorhamnetin, quercetin-3-O-diglucoside,4,2′,4′-trihydroxy-2-methoxychalcone, gossypetin-3,3′,4′,7-tetramethyl ether, myricetin-3,7,3′-trimethyl ether and 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,4′-pentamethoxyflavone. The ethyl acetate extract and its fractions F5-F7, as well as quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin-3,7,3′-trimethyl ether and p-coumaric acid exhibited high antioxidant activity on both DPPH and β-carotene antioxidant methods. Isorhamnetin exhibited moderate inhibitory effect against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (56.99 ± 3.91%), followed by naringenin (44.22 ± 1.71%), quercetin (43.41 ± 4.56%) and diprenylcinnamic acid (41.59 ± 2.59%). These results agree with previous authors who reported anti-HIV activity of flavonoids.
Abstract The propolis produced by stingless bees of the tribe Meliponini is a viscous product that contains the resin collected from buds, leaves and plant exudates, mixed with salivary secretions, wax and soil. The species Scaptotrigona aff. postica (Latreille, 1807), (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae) popularly known as “tubi” in Maranhão State, Brazil, does not mix soil to produce its propolis. The propolis from S. postica harvested in Barra do Corda, Maranhão State, is popularly used in the treatment of wounds and respiratory illnesses. The hydroalcoholic extract of this propolis, rich in flavone-6,8-di-C-glycosides (vicenin-2 and schaftoside), pyrrolizidine alkaloids derived from retronecine, catechin and caffeoylquinic acid derivatives exhibited antiviral activity against the herpes simplex and rubella viruses. The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about the chemical composition of the S. postica propolis by analyzing non-polar extracts obtained using hexane and chloroform as the solvents, by GC-EI-MS. A total of 15 constituents were identified comparing their respective mass spectral data with those available in the NIST data bases and those reported in the literature. The main constituents detected were the phenolic lipids, known as cardanols, 3-(4,7-heptadecadienyl) phenol (5), 3-(10-heptadecenyl) phenol (7), 3-heptadecylphenol (9) and 3-pentadecyl phenol or hydrocardanol (13), which predominated in the hexane extract, while the predominant constituents in the chloroform extract were 3-pentadecyl phenol or hydrocardanol (13) and 3-(8-pentadecenyl) phenol (12). The antioxidant, antitumoral, antifeedant, cytotoxic, anticarcinogenic, antiproliferative, antimicrobial, antileishmanial and larvicidal activities of the cardanols have been demonstrated in many studies.
Resumo A própolis elaborada pelas abelhas sem ferrão (Apidae, Meliponini) é um material resinoso extraído de brotos, folhas e exsudatos de plantas, que são misturados com secreções salivares, cera e solo. A espécie Scaptotrigona aff. postica (Latreille, 1807), (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini), popularmente conhecida como “tubi”, no estado do Maranhão, não mistura solo na produção da própolis. A própolis de S. postica coletada no município de Barra do Corda, estado do Maranhão, é usada popularmente no tratamento de feridas e doenças respiratórias. O extrato hidroalcoólico desta própolis é rico em flavonas-6,8- C -glicosídeos (vicenina e schaftosídeo), alcaloides pirrolizidínicos, catequinas e ácidos cafeoilquínicos, e mostrou atividade antiviral contra os vírus do herpes e da rubéola. O objetivo deste estudo foi ampliar o conhecimento sobre a composição química da própolis de S. postica, analisando os extratos apolares obtidos usando hexano e clorofórmio como solventes, por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os 15 constituintes detectados foram identificados comparando os seus respectivos espectros de massas com espectros de massas compilados nas bases de dados NIST e reportados na literatura. Os principais constituintes encontrados foram os lipídios fenólicos, conhecidos como cardanóis, 3-(4,7-heptadecadienil) fenol (5), 3-(10-heptadecenil) fenol (7), 3-heptadecilfenol (9) e 3-pentadecilfenol ou hidrocarbônico (13), que predominaram no extrato hexânico, enquanto que, no extrato clorofórmico, os constituintes predominantes foram 3-pentadecilfenol ou hidrocarbônico (13) e 3-(8-pentadecenil) fenol (12). As atividades antioxidante, antitumoral, citotóxica, antiproliferativa e larvicida dos cardanóis foram demonstradas através de vários estudos.
Abstract An Apis mellifera bee pollen sample from Bahia state in Brazil was studied to evaluate its botanical origin and phytochemical composition. The bee pollen sample was collected in the municipality of Canavieiras, in an area with a very high predominance of Cocos nucifera L (Aracaceae), which was identified as the major taxon (99%), thus being the possible botanical origin of this pollen. The main constituents found in the non-polar extract analysed by GC-EI-MS were saturated fatty acids and long chain esters, together with phytosterols such as ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3-ol, campesterol and sitosterol, detected in smaller quantities. Flavonoid glycosides, as well as hydroxycinnamic acid amide derivatives were detected in the polar extract analysed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The presence of flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acid amide derivatives, fatty acids and phytosterols have been reported in many bee pollen taxa. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study of the chemical composition of bee pollen from C. nucifera , which is cultivated for its coconut fruit.
Resumo Uma amostra de pólen apícola de abelhas Apis mellifera , coletada no Estado da Bahia, foi estudada com o objetivo de identificar a sua origem botânica e a sua composição química. A amostra de pólen apícola foi coletada no município de Canavieiras, em uma área onde ocorre a predominância de Cocos nucifera L (Aracaceae), a qual foi identificada como o maior táxon (99%) desta amostra, podendo ser considerada a origem botânica deste pólen. Os principais constituintes encontrados no extrato não polar, que foi analisado por CG-EM, foram ácidos graxos saturados e ésteres de cadeia longa, além de esteroides, tais como ergosta-5,24(28)-dieno-3-ol, campesterol e sitosterol, os quais foram detectados em menor quantidade. Flavonoides glicosídeos e amidas derivadas do ácido hidroxicinâmico foram encontrados no extrato polar, que foi analisado por HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. A presença de flavonoides glicosídeos e amidas derivadas do ácido hidroxicinâmico, ácidos graxos e esteroides foi reportada em muitas amostras de pólen, por vários autores. Este é o primeiro estudo que avalia a composição química de uma amostra de pólen originada de Cocos nucifera L, uma planta que é cultivada para a produção do coco.
The medicinal plants Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Araliaceae) and Heteropterys tomentosa A. Juss (Malpighiaceae) are widely and separately used by the Brazilian population as phytotherapeutics for the same medicinal purposes as tonics and to improve cognition. A chemical analysis was carried out on hydroethanolic extracts of powdered roots from P. ginseng and H. tomentosa using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS (High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to Diode-Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrum/Mass Spectrum). The ginsenosides Rg1, Rf, mRg and mRf were the main constituents in a hydroethanolic extract from P. ginseng, while in the hydroethanolic extract from H. tomentosa, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and astilbin isomers were the main constituents. Concentration-time-effect curves were generated in cultures of astrocytes that were incubated with hydroethanolic extracts of these species to elucidate their toxicities. The P. ginseng extract was nontoxic at all of the tested times and concentrations. The hydroethanolic extract from H. tomentosa demonstrated toxicity at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL. P. ginseng extract had no protective effect against staurosporine. Many studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of ginsenosides, caffeoylquinic derivatives and flavonoids.
ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the phytochemical composition of hydroethanolic extracts from powdered aerial parts of Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae; T. diffusa), as well as its toxicity in astrocytes. Methods Chemical analyses of hydroethanolic extract from powdered aerial parts ofT. diffusa were carried out using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS.In vitro assays using astrocytes culture were performed to evaluate cell death. Results Flavone-C, O-diglycosides, such as, luteolin-8-C-[6-deoxy-2-O-rhamnosyl]-xylo-hexos-3-uloside, apigenin-8-C-[6-deoxy-2-O-rhamnosyl]-xylo-hexos-3-uloside and apigenin-7-O-6”-p-coumaroylglucoside were the main compounds found in this hydroethanolic extract. Concentration time-effect demonstrated the toxicity of this extract at a concentration of 1,000µg/mL in astrocyte culture, after 6 and 24 hours of incubation. Conclusion In phytochemical analyses, important antioxidants (mainly flavonoids) were observed. T. diffusa extracts presented cytotoxic effect in high concentrations, leading to increased cell death in astrocyte culture.
RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a composição fitoquímica do extrato hidroetanólico das partes aéreas de Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae; T. diffusa) e sua toxicidade em astrócitos. Métodos Análises químicas do extrato hidroetanólico de partes aéreas de T. diffusa foram feitas por HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Os ensaiosin vitro utilizaram culturas de astrócitos para avaliar morte celular. Resultados Flavonas-C, O-diglicosídeos, como, luteolina-8-C-[6-deoxi-2-O-raminosil]-xilo-hexos-3-ulosideo, apigenina-8-C-[6-deoxi-2-O-raminosil]-xilo-hexos-3-ulosideo e apigenina-7-O-6”-p-cumaroilglucosídeo foram os principais constituintes encontrados neste extrato hidroetanólico. Uma curva tempo-concentração demonstrou toxicidade desse extrato na concentração de 1.000µg/mL, na cultura de astrócitos após 6 e 24 horas de incubação. Conclusão Nas análises fitoquímicas, importantes antioxidantes, sobretudo flavonoides, foram observados. Extratos de T. diffusa apresentaram efeitos citotóxicos em altas concentrações, ocasionando aumento de morte celular em cultura de astrócitos.
Periandra dulcis Mart. ex Benth. Fabaceae (Syn.: P. mediterranea (Vell.) Taub.) is native to the northern and middle parts of Brazil. In Brazilian ethnomedicine, their roots are used as anti inflammatory, expectorant, diuretic and laxative. An HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system was employed to provide a rapid method to make a tentative characterization of the compounds found in the hydroethanolic extract from P. dulcis roots. The structures of sixteen compounds found in this hydroethanolic extract were suggested mainly by MS data conjugated with the UVDAD spectra, reference compounds and available mass spectra data in literature. Saponin derivatives of hederagenin and soyasapogenol E, such as hederagenin-3-O-rhamnosyl glucosyl glucuronide, soyasapogenol E-3-O-rhamnosyl glucosyl glucuronide and periandrin isomers were found as the main constituents, with a minor content of flavonols quercetin and myricetin glycosides derivatives and hydrolysable tannins, such as dihexahydroxydiphenoyl galloyl glucoside and trisgalloyl hexahydroxydiphenoyl glucose.To the best of our knowledge, with exception of periandrins found in the roots, nothing has been published about the chemical composition of P. dulcis..
Six samples of Brazilian propolis from Minas Gerais and Paraná states were analyzed to identify the constituents (GC/MS and HPLC/MS) and to determine their contents (HPLC and external standardization). All samples contained characteristic constituents of green propolis, but the samples from Minas Gerais had higher contents of prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Kaempferide and two other flavonoids were among the major constituents of the samples from Minas Gerais. Luteolin 5-O-methyl ether was detected only in samples from Paraná. Baccharis dracunculifolia was a source of resins for all samples analyzed, but the samples from Paraná had more complex plant origin.
The diversified genus Passiflora is well distributed all over Brazil, and many species have been long used as medicinal plants, mainly against anxiety disturbances. This effect has been attributed to its rich flavonoid composition. Flavonoids’ main class, flavonoid glycosides, has presented central action, particularly as sedative-hypnotic, anxiolytic and analgesic. The objective of the present study was to make a phytochemical screening of five little studied Passiflora species, in order to evaluate their phenolic composition. For this aim, HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS was used. After the preparation of the hydroalcoholic extracts, each species was evaluated by direct injection electrospray ionization (ESI) and tandem mass spectrometry. Although belonging to the same genus, the composition of each species presented particularities; this justifies the importance of studies aiming for the phenolic composition of different Passiflora species. Flavones C-glycosides were detected in all extracts, and are found as the main constituents in P. vitifolia, P. coccinea, P. bahiensis and P. sidifolia. In this last one, flavone-6,8-di-C-glycoside, apigenin-6-C-rhamnosyl-8-C-arabinoside are present in high content. Cyclopassiflosides were found in high content together with cyanogenic glycosides in P. quadrangularis, while in P. coccinea, besides flavones-C-glycosides were also found procyanidins.
Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, is used as anxiolytic plants in folk medicine by South-American indians, "caboclos" and river-dwellers. This work focused the evaluation of phenolic composition of hydroethanolic extract of S. guianensis through HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS/MS. The constituents exhibited protonated, deprotonated and sodiated molecules and the MS/MS fragmentation of protonated, deprotonated and sodiated molecules provided product ions with rich structural information. Vicenin-2 (apigenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside) was the main constituent found in S. guianensis together quercetin-3,7-di-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3,7di-O-rhamnoside. A commercial extract of Passiflora incarnata (Phytomedicine) was used as surrogate standard and also was analyzed through HPLC-DAD-ESI/ MS/MS, showing flavones C-glycosides as constituents, among them, vicenin-2 and vitexin. The main constituent was vitexin. Flavonols triglycosides was also found in low content in S. guianensis and were tentatively characterized as quercetin-3O-rutinoside-7-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-pentosyl-pentoside-7-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-O-pentosyl-pentoside-7-O-rhamnoside. Apigenin and kaempferol derivatives had been reported as anxiolytic agents. Flavonoids present in this extract were correlated with flavonoids reported as anxiolytics.
Croton macrobothrys Baill, Euphorbiaceae, is a tree from the Atlantic Forest in Southern Brazil, used in traditional medicine and popularly known as "dragon's blood" and "pau-sangue". Leaf n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol extracts were analyzed by GC/MS and evaluated for their in vitro antiproliferative activity on cell lines 786-0 (kidney), HT-29 (colon), K562 (leukemia), NCI-ADR/RES (drug resistant ovary), NCI-H460 (lung), MCF-7 (mammary), PC-3 (prostate), OVCAR-3 (ovary), U251 (glioma) and UACC-62 (melanoma). The dicloromethane extract exhibited activity against all cell lines at the concentration 25 µg/mL, in particular on cell lines NCI-H460 (GI50 0.33 μg/mL) and K5662 (GI50 0.91 μg/mL). Relevant constituents in dichloromethane extract are the alkaloids corydine and salutaridine, as well as the diterpenes geranylgeraniol and crotonin-derived clerodanes.
In the beginning of the 19th century, the first Brazilian scientific knowledge journal on medicinal plants the Gazetas Médicas was launch reporting Brazilian medicinal plants belonging to several botanical families. The aim of this study was research the Solanaceae species that were described as anxiolytics in the 19th century's Brazilian Medical Gazettes and to make a revision about these species in literature. A taxonomic update, together a careful research about ethnopharmacological, pharmacological and phytochemical, patent process and reports of phytomedicines, was carried out for these Solanaceae species. In this research were found thirteen plants, but the taxonomic update reduced this number to six species. Among them, Physalis angulata L. and Solanum nigrum L. were studied and showed depressor activity on central nervous system (CNS) as described in Gazetas Médicas. This research showed that Solanaceae species reported in this study has potential as anxiolytic drugs and should be investigated more deeply.
Humulus lupulus L., Cannabaceae, is commonly used as light sedative and anxiolytics in folk medicine. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn represents a powerful tool for the analysis of natural products, since it can simultaneously provide a UV chromatogram and significant structural information about compounds in complex mixture. The aim of this work was characterize the constituents present in hydroethanolic extract. Compounds 1-9 were tentatively characterized on the basis of UV, MS/MS, after reversed phase separation, retention time and literature data. The main phenolic compounds (based on peak area) were characterized as hulupinic acid (9), cohulupone (8), two oxidized hop alfa-bitter acids (principal constituents), one being a oxidized cohumulinone (5) and the other an oxidized humulinone (7) derivatives, together with a procyanidin dimer B (3), flavonoids rutin (4) and kaempferol-7-O-rutinoside (6). This plant known, due to anxiolytic property and beer flavoring, showed oxidized hop bitter acids, as principal constituents, in its hydroethanolic extract.
Humulus lupulus L., Cannabaceae, é usada como sedativo e ansiolítico na medicina popular. O método de HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn representa uma ferramenta poderosa para a análise de produtos naturais, desde que ela fornece o espectro de UV e informações estruturais sobre os constituintes da mistura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de caracterizar os constituintes encontrados no extrato hidroalcoólico. Os constituintes 1-9 foram tentativamente caracterizados através do UV/DAD e ionização por electrospray (MS/MS) depois da separação usando fase reversa, tempo de retenção e dados da literatura. Os principais compostos fenólicos (baseados na área dos picos) foram caracterizados como ácido hulupínico (9), coulupona (8), dois alfa-ácidos amargos oxidados (principais constituintes), um deles sendo um derivado da coumulinona oxidada (5) e o outro um derivado da humulinona oxidada (7), junto com uma procianidina B (3) e os flavonoides rutina (4) e o canferol-7-O-rutinosídeo (6). Esta planta conhecida devido às suas propriedades ansiolíticas e por ser um componente da cerveja, mostrou derivados oxidados de alfa-ácidos, como principais constituintes do extrato hidroalcoólico.
The essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Staf, Poaceae, is rich in citral and has many applications in chemical and pharmaceutical industry. The aims of this study were evaluate the amount of citral in populations of C. citratus collected in two different regions (Ibiúna and Pindamonhangaba, São Paulo State). The essential oil extracted of a cultivated population in Pidamonhangaba-SP, showed a high content of citral (approximately 96.0%), while the essential oil from Ibiuna-SP, showed citral and high amounts of another monoterpene, geraniol. Additionally, the essential oils from this population of C. citratus were extracted and analyzed during 24 h (each 3 h), being the major concentration of citral in the night period, indicating that studies which evaluated the chemical differences associated to circadian changes. The components of essential oils were identified through 13C NMR, GC/MS, GC and Kovat's index.
O óleo essencial extraído de Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Staf, Poaceae, é rico em citral sendo amplamente empregado na indústria química e farmacêutica. Os objetivos desse estudo foram avaliar o conteúdo de citral entre populações de C. citratus coletados em duas regiões diferentes (Ibiúna e Pindamonhangaba, Estado de São Paulo). O óleo essencial extraído de uma população cultivada em Pindamonhangaba-SP apresentou uma concentração alta de citral (aproximadamente 96,0%), enquanto que o óleo extraído da população de Ibiúna-SP apresentou, além de citral, proporções elevadas de outro monoterpeno, o geraniol. Adicionalmente, os óleos essenciais obtidos desta população de C. citratus foram extraídos e analisados ao longo de 24 h (a cada 3 h), sendo que o teor de citral foi maior no período da noite, o que mostra a importância de estudos que avaliam as diferenças químicas associadas às mudanças circadianas. Os componentes dos óleos essenciais foram identificados por RMN de 13C, CG/EM e CG através do índice de Kovats.
An ethnopharmacological survey developed among quilombolas living in Sesmaria Mata-Cavalos, in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil; a cigarette known as "tira-capeta" (removing-the-devil), had been cited mainly "to improve memory and cognition", and also showed other therapeutical indications, such as: "against sinusitis", "to avoid cold", "to relieve sleep problems". The purpose of the present study was carried out a screening of essential oils delivered in the heating of plants used to produce the "tira-capeta" cigarette, using a simple, rapid and solvent-free method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and headspace solid-phase microextraction. The principal essential oils found were 1,8 cineole, camphor and α-pinene. In the tentative to correlate these constituents with therapeutical indications reported by the quilombolas, were found some works carried out by many authors that corroborated the therapeutical indications reported by the quilombolas.
Pesquisa etnofarmacológica realizada entre os quilombolas que vivem na Sesmaria Mata-Cavalos, no Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil, um cigarro conhecido como "tira-capeta", foi citado por melhorar a memória e cognição, além de possuir outras indicações terapêuticas, tais como, "contra a sinusite", "para evitar resfriado", e "para aliviar problemas de insônia". No presente estudo, foi feita a caracterização dos óleos essenciais liberados durante o aquecimento das plantas utilizadas na confecção do cigarro, usando um método simples, rápido e livre de solvente baseado em cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas usando "headspace" e microextração em fase sólida. Os principais constituintes encontrados foram 1,8-cineol, cânfora e α-pineno. Na tentativa de correlacionar a atividade biológica desses constituintes com as indicações terapêuticas relatadas pelos quilombolas, encontramos vários trabalhos realizados por diversos autores que mostraram que estes óleos possuem atividades similares às indicações terapêuticas relatadas pelos quilombolas.
The present paper reports results of the effect of Potato virus X (PVX) on the contents of total phenols and alkaloids in leaves of Datura stramonium. A significant decrease in the contents of phenols and alkaloids was observed in leaves inoculated with PVX (X-I). However, there was an increase in the percentage of phenols in leaves rubbed with phosphate buffer (C1-I) and in leaves from the nodes immediately above, possibly induced by mechanical injury. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy revealed amounts of scopolamine in samples submitted to all treatments, except X-I, in which the amount of this alkaloid was low. High amounts of an unidentified compound (molecular ion m/z 302 and a prominent peak at m/z 129) were noted in extracts from leaves X-I, C1-I and leaves from the nodes immediately above the leaves inoculated with PVX. It is suggested that the synthesis and accumulation of the unidentified compound is a result of stress from mechanical injury and virus inoculation.
O presente trabalho relata resultados sobre a ação do Potato virus X (PVX) no conteúdo de fenóis totais e alcalóides em folhas de Datura stramonium. Uma diminuição significativa no conteúdo dessas substâncias foi observada nas folhas inoculadas com o PVX (X-I). Entretanto, houve um aumento na porcentagem de fenóis nas folhas friccionadas com tampão fosfato (C1-I) e nas acima das friccionadas, possivelmente induzido por injúria mecânica. Cromatografia gasosa/espectroscopia de massas revelou quantidades de escopolamina nas amostras submetidas a todos os tratamentos, exceto em X-I, no qual a quantidade deste alcalóide foi baixa. Altas quantidades de uma substância não identificada (íon molecular m/z 302 e um proeminente pico a m/z 129) foram notadas em extratos a partir de folhas dos tratamentos X-I, C1-I e nas acima das inoculadas com o PVX. Sugere-se que a síntese e acúmulo da substância não identificada é um resultado do estresse causado pela injúria mecânica e pelo vírus.