ABSTRACT Currently, mining waste has been take an important role as a raw material in environmental sustainability programs, with the objective of minimizing the impacts resulting from mining activity. Given this, this research proposes to analyze pegmatite mining waste for use in aggregate for concrete. The samples were petrographically characterized according to their reactive potential to the Alkali-Aggregate Reaction under standard ABNT 15577-3 and tests were performed to evaluating the physical indexes and mechanical strength. It was found among the dimensions of pegmatites that two of them shows innocuous for alkali-aggregate reaction, because it contains levels of deleterious phases for RAA below the limit acceptable by the norm. Though, the other samples showed potential reactivity to RAA, because either contains deformed quartz, or both deleterious phases identified according to the standard used: deformed quartz and microgranular. The mechanical resistance assumed values below the average values presented by the consulted literature. This fact is justified by the degree of alteration observed in the studied samples. Mining residues were found to have been subjected to weathering, resulting in a drop in expected mechanical strength values. Considering the physical indexes, the samples showed good results regarding the moisture absorption capacity.
RESUMO Na atualidade, os resíduos de mineração vem sendo considerados como matéria prima nos programas de sustentabilidade ambiental, com o objetivo de minimizar os impactos decorrentes da atividade mineradora. Diante disso, o presente trabalho propõe analisar os resíduos de mineração de pegmatito para uso em agregado para concretos. As amostras foram caracterizadas petrograficamente, segundo seu potencial reativo à Reação Álcali-Agregado sob a norma ABNT 15577-3 e foram realizados ensaios para avaliação dos índices físicos e da resistência mecânica. Verificou-se entre as amostras de pegmatitos que duas delas obtiveram inocuidade para a reação álcali-agregado, por conter teores de fases deletéreas à RAA abaixo do limite aceitável pela norma. Entretanto, as demais amostras apresentaram potencial reatividade à RAA, por conter ora quartzo deformado, ora ambas as fases deletéras identificadas de acordo com a norma utilizada: quartzo deformado e microgranular. Os valores de resistência mecânica assumiram valores abaixo dos valores médios apresentados pela literatura consultada. Esse fato se justifica pelo grau de alteração observado nas amostras estudadas. Comprovou-se que os resíduos de lavra foram submetidos às ações intempéricas, tendo como resultado uma queda nos valores de resistência mecânica esperados. Considerando os índices físicos, as amostras apresentaram bons resultados no que diz respeito à capacidade de absorção de umidade.
ABSTRACT The difficulty in the powder reuse favors the study of materials in the form of thin films. ZnO based films have high photocatalytic potential. In this work, ZnO:xSm3+ (x = 0, 1, 2 and 4 %mol) thin films were prepared by spin coating method. The resins obtained to manufacture the thin films were prepared by complex polymerization method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and spectroscopy UV-Vis. XRD patterns indicate that doping with 4%Sm forms Sm2O3 as the secondary phase. FE-SEM images of the cross section of thin films indicated a uniform thickness ranging from 354 to 367 nm between samples. The incorporation of Sm3+ ions in the ZnO lattice increases the Egap of the films. The photocatalytic performance of the films was tested with the photodegradation of methylene blue dye. Pure ZnO and ZnO:1%Sm3+ exhibited the best activity in the photodegradation. Thin films of pure ZnO exhibit the best photocatalytic results for the first cycle, but considerably reduce their efficiency with reuse. Sm3+ incorporation, without secondary phase formation, was efficient for the maintenance of the photocatalytic property after 3 cycles.
Inconel 625 is a nickel-based highly-resistant superalloy widely used in aerospace components, in the nuclear industry, and especially in the maritime industry. Materials such as Inconel 625 have been widely used in oil exploration of Brazilian pre-salt layers due to their excellent resistance to corrosion under tension, pitting and crevice corrosion by chloride and sulphide ions, and also because they are resistant to microbiological corrosion. All components used in the exploration of crude oil in these environments suffer mechanical fatigue from oceanic oscillations that naturally occur. Samples were precisely machined and tested under uniaxial tension and cyclic tension-compression fatigue following determinations of the ASTM E8M and ASTM E466 standards respectively, at a loading ratio of R = -1. Tensile strengths of 586, 472, 382 and 306 MPa were selected according to the yield strength of the material for raising the S-N curve. A macro and microstructural characterization regarding failure modes was performed revealing that fatigue striations predominated in the stable region of crack growth, whereas microvoids coalescence prevailed in the fast fracture zone. Inconel 625 presented a refined microstructure composed of equiaxial grains with a mean size of 14 µm, typical of refining obtained by hardening followed by recrystallization. The precipitation of MC type carbides (M=Mo or M=Nb) and Cr23C6 dispersed in the austenitic matrix of Inconel 625 controls a secondary alloy hardening mechanism.
Crystalline europium-doped indium hydroxide (In(OH)3:Eu) nanostructures were prepared by rapid and efficient Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal (MAH) method. Nanostructures were obtained at low temperature. FE-SEM images confirm that these samples are composed of 3D nanostructures. XRD, optical diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were used to characterize the products. Emission spectra of europium-doped indium hydroxide (IH:xEu) samples under excitation (350.7 nm) presented broad band emission regarding the indium hydroxide (IH) matrix and 5D0 → 7F0, 5D0 → 7F1, 5D0 → 7F2, 5D0 → 7F3 and 5D0 → 7F4 europium transitions at 582, 596, 618, 653 and 701 nm, respectively. Relative intensities of Eu3+ emissions increased as the concentration of this ion increased from 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mol %, of Eu3+, but the luminescence is drastically quenched for the IH matrix.
Since the 1980s, different devices based on superelastic alloys have been developed to fulfill orthodontic applications. Particularly in the last decades several researches have been carried out to evaluate the mechanical behavior of Ni-Ti alloys, including their tensile, torsion and fatigue properties. However, studies regarding the dependence of elastic properties on residence time of Ni-Ti wires in the oral cavity are scarce. Such approach is essential since metallic alloys are submitted to mechanical stresses during orthodontic treatment as well as pH and temperature fluctuations. The goal of the present contribution is to provide elastic stress-strain results to guide the orthodontic choice between martensitic thermal activated and austenitic superelastic Ni-Ti alloys. From the point of view of an orthodontist, the selection of appropriate materials and the correct maintenance of the orthodontic apparatus are essential needs during clinical treatment. The present work evaluated the elastic behavior of Ni-Ti alloy wires with diameters varying from 0.014 to 0.020 inches, submitted to hysteresis tensile tests with 8% strain. Tensile tests were performed after periods of use of 1, 2 and 3 months in the oral cavity of patients submitted to orthodontic treatment. The results from the hysteresis tests allowed to exam the strain range covered by isostress lines upon loading and unloading, as well as the residual strain after unloading for both superelastic and thermal activated Ni-Ti wires. Superelastic Ni-Ti wires exhibited higher load isostress values compared to thermal activated wires. It was found that such differences in the load isostress values can increase with increasing residence time.
Polycrystalline strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) powders with 0.15, 0.22, and 0.30 mol % Sr were synthesized by the polymeric precursor route using a molar ratio of 3:1 citric acid and metal cations. The powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, high-temperature X-ray diffraction to determine the crystalline perovskite phase and crystallite sizes, scanning electron microscopy for the morphological analysis, nitrogen adsorption to determine the specific surface area, and laser scattering to evaluate the particle size distribution. The LSM perovskite-type oxides containing intermediate 0.22 mol % Sr were found to exhibit a tendency to decrease in crystallite size and increase in specific surface area and, when calcined at 700-900 ºC exhibited a pure phase of perovskite, had a crystallite size of about 17-20 nm and a specific surface area for 900 ºC of 34.3 m².g-1.
Lanthanum manganite is a type p intrinsic semiconductor ceramic oxide with perovskite structure. The partial substitution in A-site of that material increases it’s electrical conductivity, becoming appropriate to be used in production of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) component for working at temperatures around at 1000 °C. In general, the properties of materials change with composition and synthesis method. In the present work, the synthesis of La1-xSrxMnO3 (x = 0,20-0,22) has been carried out by citrate method, aiming at to investigate the percentage effect of the dopante in the formation of the perovskite phase. This method allows to obtain homogenous powders and crystalline phase in lower temperatures than traditional methods of synthesis. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analyses (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analysis by specific surface area by BET method. The powders synthesized with 22% partial substitution of strontium showed better results relative to obtain perovskite phase.
As Manganitas de Lantânio são óxidos cerâmicos semicondutores intrínsecos do tipo p com estrutura perovsquita. A dopagem adequada nos sítios A, nesse material, aumenta a condutividade elétrica tornando-o apropriado para ser utilizado na produção de células a combustível de óxido sólido (solid oxide fuel cell - SOFC), operando em temperaturas próximas de 1000 °C. Em geral, a propriedades dos materiais variam com a composição e com o método de síntese. Nesse trabalho, foi sintetizado o composto La1-xSrxMnO3 (x = 0,20-0,22) via método citrato, visando investigar o efeito do teor de dopante na formação da fase perovsquita. O método citrato foi utilizado, uma vez que permite a obtenção de pós homogêneos e fases cristalinas a temperaturas mais baixas que os métodos tradicionais de síntese. Os pós-sintetizados foram caracterizados por difração de raios X (DRX), análise termogravimétrica (TG), microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e análise de área superficial específica pelo método BET. Os pós sintetizados com substituição de 22% de lantânio apresentaram melhores resultados em relação a obtenção da fase perovsquita.