Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the possible modifications due to industrial processing in the volatiles (HS-SPME/GC-MS), bioactive compounds (content total, and phenolic profile by UFLC-DAD) and antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, ORAC) of fresh and processed mango pulp with addition of additives, pasteurized, and pasteurized with additives. The physicochemical characteristics of the samples were evaluated. All parameters were significantly (p≤0.05) affected by processing. According to the PCA analysis, the stability of the samples was influenced by the thermal processing and the work clearly demonstrated the separation between the analyzed samples as a function of the effect of thermal processing. It is concluded that industrial processing, although important for the preservation of useful life and maintenance of the microbiological quality of mango pulp, influence the functional and aromatic properties, causing a significant reduction in the volatile and bioactive compounds, which can negatively influence the acceptance of the processed product by consumers.
Abstract Malpighia emarginata D.C is an important crop of Brazil and significant source of antioxidant active compounds with notable health effects. The purpose of this work was to study three varieties of acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C) at green unripe stage of maturity from the São Francisco Valley of Northeast Brazil. The fruits were evaluated for physico-chemical composition, bioactive compounds, through spectrophotometric analysis and liquid chromatography, as well as the profile of macro and micro minerals and antioxidant capacity. The fruits presented satisfactory results in physico-chemical quality parameters. HPLC-DAD phenolic profile analysis identified kaempferol-3-glucoside (32.68 mg/100 g), p-coumaric acid (28.87 mg/100 g) and isorhamnetin (11.41 mg/100 g) as the major compounds, mainly in the variety of Flor Branca (FB). The results obtained from the profiles of sugars and organic acids were similar among the varieties. The minerals were excellent sources of the elements of K, Ca, Mg and Mn. Moreover, FB variety represents higher antioxidant capacity in ABTS·+ (8613.54 μM Trolox/g) and ORAC (2454.42 μM Trolox/g). Thus, the results show the potential to be applied for variety selection and utilization programs based on their specific nutritive characters, contributing to the development of new products.
O aroma é uma das principais características dos alimentos e é determinado por uma combinação de moléculas voláteis presentes na matriz, sendo um dos seus atributos mais atraentes para o consumidor. Neste trabalho foram identificados compostos voláteis presentes em dois estágios de maturação da acerola. Para a análise, utilizou-se a técnica da microextração em fase sólida por headspace (HS-SPME - HeadSpace Solid Phase MicroExtraction) associada com a cromatografia gasosa de alta resolução acoplada a espectrômetro de massa (GC-MS - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry). A influência das fibras na extração dos voláteis via SPME (CAR/PDMS e DVB/CAR/PDMS) foi avaliada. Os efeitos da temperatura de extração, concentração do meio de extração (cloreto de sódio - NaCl) e quantidade de amostra foram estudados usando-se o Delineamento Central Composto (DCC) para avaliar a maior eficiência de extração. Observou-se que, na acerola madura (vermelha) e semimadura (amarela) os compostos predominantes foram os ésteres, dentre eles o etil hexanoato o 4-pentenil-butanoato foram os que apresentaram maior concentração relativa. Esta identificação é uma informação importante para a indústria de aromas, que utilizam diferentes compostos aromáticos para a formulação de fragrâncias e aromas para serem usados em alimentos, cosméticos e perfumes.
Flavor is one of the main characteristics of food identified as a combination of volatile molecules present in the matrix and is one of its most attractive attributes to the consumer. In this research have been identified volatile compounds present in two stages of acerola maturation. For the analysis, have been used the following techniques and equipment: Headspace (HS-SPME) Solid Phase Microextraction Technique associated with High-Resolution Gas Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The influence of SPME fibers (CAR / PDMS and DVB / CAR / PDMS) was evaluated on the volatiles extraction. The effects of extraction temperature, extraction medium concentration (NaCl) and amount of sample were studied using the Composite Central Delineation (CCD) to achieve the highest extraction efficiency. In mature (red) and semi-yellow (yellow) acerola the dominant compounds were esters; among them, ethylhexanoate and 4-pentenyl butanoate were the ones with the highest relative concentration. This identification is essential information for the flavors industry which use different aromatic compounds for the formulation of fragrances and aromas to be used in food, cosmetics, and perfumes.
Abstract The mango has short postharvest shelf life which varies from 6 to 10 days at room temperature in its fresh form. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of usage of edible coatings based of cassava starch and chitosan on post-harvest shelf life of mango. Mangoes of Tommy Atkins variety were covered with nine different formulations of coatings in a factorial block experimental design. The fruits were stored at 25 °C and evaluated during storage for the weight loss (%), color parameters, sensory attributes evaluated by trained panel, the rate of CO2 production and microbiological contamination on the peels. Results analysed by linear regressions and ANOVA, demonstrated that chitosan showed significant effect on weight loss (%) and on values of L*, a*, b*, chroma, ºhue, peel color, texture, aroma and time which correlated well for suitability of fruit consumption. The formulation containing 0.25% of chitosan and 0.5% of cassava starch showed most favorable results as it presented a post-harvest shelf life of 3 days more than the control fruits and lower rates of CO2 production, showing that this coating actually decreased the rate of the respiratory processes of mango, without compromising the proper ripening of the fruit.
This study was performed to investigate the volatile compounds for the characteristic aroma in jabuticaba fruit distributed in southern and central regions of Brazil. The present work combines headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques to identify and quantify the volatile compounds. The influence of different SPME fibers (CAR/PDMS and DVB/CAR/PDMS) in extraction of volatile compounds was evaluated. The effects of extraction temperature and salt concentration (NaCl) in the extraction medium were studied using the response surface methodology in order to achieve the highest extraction efficiency. The better extraction of volatile compounds was achieved by using a CAR/PDMS fiber and the optimum adsorption conditions were at 42 °C for 30 min and 5% NaCl concentration. A total of 71 compounds were identified, among these, 57% were terpenes which was the most representative class of compounds, followed by esters (19%), aldehydes (10%), alcohols (5.5%) and aromatics compounds (4.4%) and other organic compounds 2.8%. Limonene and ethyl acetate were the volatile compounds that showed highest relative concentration and these could contribute to the characteristic aroma of the jabuticaba fruit along with other compounds such as b-pinene, δ-cadinene, linalool, b-guaiene, and α-caryophyllene.
Abstract This paper describes the application of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique for the determination and monitoring of the volatile profile of minimally-processed pineapple fruit stored at various temperatures (-12 °C, 4 °C and 25 °C) for different periods (1, 4 and 10 days). The SPME fiber coating composed of Car/PDMS presented the best performance. The optimal extraction conditions obtained through a Doehlert design were 60 min at 35 °C. The profiles for the volatile compounds content of the fruit at each stage of storage were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The variation in the volatile profile over time was greater when the fruit samples were stored at 25 °C and at -12 °C compared to 4 °C. Thus, according to the volatile profiles associated with the storage conditions evaluated in this study, packaged pineapple retains best its fresh fruit aroma when stored at 4 °C.
Abstract Aroma and taste are decisive factors in the selection of any food. The aim of this study was to extract the volatile compounds present in soursop (Annona muricata L.) pulp by Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique using 3 different fibers (DVB/CAR/ PDMS, CAR/PDMS and PDMS/DVB). An experimental design was set up to evaluate the best extraction conditions wherein the variables were adsorption temperature, ionic strength and pulp concentration. The separation of volatiles was performed in chromatographic columns of different polarity (polar and non-polar) while volatile compounds were identified by analysis in high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry. The results obtained using 3 different fibers revealed the capture of about 40 compounds. The CAR/PDMS fiber was more efficient for the capture of esters and DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber for terpenes. The optimum conditions for capture of higher number of volatiles for polar column were 45 °C for extraction, 15% of ionic strength and 50% of pulp concentration which resulted in separation of 87 compounds. Among the principal character impact compounds from soursop are (E)-2-hexenoate, methyl hexenoate and linalool.
Abstract The objective of this paper was to determine the volatile profile of four cultivars - Barker, Collinson, Fortuna and Geada of avocado (Persea americana, Mill.) fruit and to perform a detailed study on the effect of volatiles extraction conditions. The best conditions for extraction for Collinson and Fortuna cultivars were by using a mixture of pentane and ethyl ether (2:1) as solvent for 80 min, while for Barker and Geada cultivars, the solvents were hexane and pentane-ether (2:1), respectively but for a shorter extraction period of 60 min. A total number of 158 compounds were separated in all 4 avocado cultivars, among them eighty-four volatile compounds were identified. The principal volatile compounds viz. hexanal, ethyl acetate, methyl dodecanoate, 2,5-dimethyl furan, 1,3-butanediol, 2-ethylphenol, 2-butanol, α−bergamotene, β−caryophyllene, (E)-2-decenal were common in all the 4 cultivars. (E)-2-pentenal which possesses fruity aroma was found only in the cultivar Fortuna while ethyl acetate possessing fresh fruity flavor was present in higher content in Collinson cultivar. Benzaldehyde which possesses characteristic fruity and nutty odor note was present at a higher concentration (4.3%) in only Geada cultivar and in traces in Barker cultivar but it was not detected in Collinson and Fortuna cultivars.
The aim of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and antifungal activities of the red propolis samples from Sergipe, Brazil, and also evaluate their variability throughout the year. The characterization of the hydroalcoholic extract (HPE) of the red propolis samples was performed monthly from October 2009 to September 2010. The concentrations of the bioactive compounds varied during the year, but their chromatographic profiles were similar. Four compounds were identified by comparison with authentic standards. Formononetin was one of the predominant compounds in all propolis extracts. In our study, it was observed that all the propolis samples inhibited the growth of Candida species. Multivariate analysis confirmed the variations in chemical composition and color of the HPEs throughout the year. The biological activities of the HPEs were statistically significant (p<0.05), and all samples exhibited antifungal properties.
The objective of this paper was to determine the chemical composition of the avocado fruit of cultivars Fortuna, Collinson, and Barker and to carry out a detailed analysis of the fatty acid composition of the pulp, seed, and peel oils. The saturated fatty acid (SFA) of the pulp oils accounted for around 22.3, 29.4, and 41.3% of the total fatty acids in the Fortuna, Collinson and Barker cultivars, respectively, and these values indicate better quality of pulp oil of Fortuna and Collinson cultivars than that of the Barker cultivar. There was very little variation in the content monounsaturated fatty acids of the peel oils between the cultivars. However, the seed oil of the Collinson cultivar was the best since it contained the lowest (30.8% of total fatty acids) content of SFA, but it had very high concentrations of 9,12-octadecadienoic (23.9 to 29.4% of total fatty acids) and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic (9.9 to 18.3% of total fatty acids) acids.
In this study, seven wine samples were prepared varying the amount of pulp of acerola fruits and the sugar content using the simulated annealing technique to obtain the optimal sensory qualities and cost for the wine produced. S. cerevisiae yeast was used in the fermentation process and the sensory attributes were evaluated using a hedonic scale. Acerola wines were classified as sweet, with 11°GL of alcohol concentration and with aroma, taste, and color characteristics of the acerola fruit. The simulated annealing experiments showed that the best conditions were found at mass ratio between 1/7.5-1/6 and total soluble solids between 28.6-29.0 °Brix, from which the sensory acceptance scores of 6.9, 6.8, and 8.8 were obtained for color, aroma, and flavor, respectively, with a production cost 43-45% lower than the cost of traditional wines commercialized in Brazil.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the quality of two commercial brands of green tea in sachets, verifying how different infusion times, including that recommended by the manufacturer, affect functional component levels. METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection was used for identifying and quantifying caffeine, catechin, epigallocatechin, rutin and epicatechin. RESULTS: Epigallocatechin and catechin levels of both brands were higher with an infusion time of 6 minutes in boiling water (100°C). Rutin was only found in one of the brands after an infusion of six minutes. Methanol (99.8%) extraction significantly increased the yield of all study compounds. The Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity of the tea increased with infusion time. However, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity of the methanol extractions was significantly smaller than that of all of the other treatments (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Chemical analysis of moisture, ash, ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid, and microscopic analysis of dirt and other physical contaminants showed that both brands conform to the legislation with respect to these parameters.
OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de duas marcas comerciais de chá verde em sachê, e verificar o efeito do tempo de infusão, em intervalos de tempos que incluem o recomendado pelo fabricante, sobre a disponibilidade dos compostos funcionais. MÉTODOS: Por análises em cromatografia líquida ultrarrápida com detector de arranjos de díodo,foram identificadas e quantificadas a cafeína, a catequina, a epigalocatequina, a rutina e a epicatequina. RESULTADOS: A epigalotocatequina e a catequina foram encontradas em maior concentração no tempo seis minutos de infusão em água (100°C) em ambas as marcas, sendo a rutina apenas encontrada na infusão por seis minutos e em apenas uma das marcas avaliadas. A extraçãocom metanol (99,8%) aumentou significativamente o rendimento de todos os compostos avaliados. Foi observado que atividade antioxidante equivalente ao trolox do chá aumentou diretamente com o aumento do tempo de infusão, no entanto, para os extratos obtidos em metanol, a atividade antioxidante foi menor que todos os outros tratamentos, havendo diferença significativa (p<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: As análises químicas de umidade, cinzas e cinzas insolúveis em ácido clorídrico revelaram que as duas marcas avaliadas estão em conformidade com a legislação para esses parâmetros, bem como com relação à presença de sujidades e materiais estranhos, revelados na microscopia.
The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from passion fruit residues generated during processing. Distillates of passion fruit residues were obtained from the techniques of simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by solid phase microextraction with Carboxen/DVB/DMS fiber. The volatile compounds were indentified by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry using a fused sillica capillary column with a CP WAX 52 stationary phase. Thirty one compounds were indentified by simple hydrodistillation technique. The main compounds were: neral (26.19%), methyl cinnamate (18.52%), linalool (16.82%), 1-undecanol (5.60%), cis-linalool oxide (4.41%), benzaldehyde (3.92%) and 1-hexanol (3.48%). For the hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas, thirty compounds were identified and the ones which presented higher area percentage were: methyl cinnamate (30.41%), neral (24.46%), β-ionone (13.81%), linalool (4.0%) and butanoic acid (2.19%). The present study revealed that passion fruit waste contained volatile compounds that could be extracted as aromas products, presenting potential for the production of value-added natural essences.
Este estudo objetivou extrair e identificar compostos voláteis presentes nos resíduos de processo de maracujá. Obtiveram-se destilados a partir de resíduos de maracujá através das técnicas de hidrodestilação simples e hidrodestilação com arraste de gás nitrogênio. Os compostos voláteis presentes nos destilados foram capturados por microextração em fase sólida, empregando-se fibra Carboxen/DVB/DMS, e identificados por cromatografia gasosa acoplada com espectrômetro de massa, usando a coluna capilar de sílica fundida CP WAX 52. Foram identificados trinta e um compostos voláteis no extrato obtido pela técnica de hidrodestilação simples, sendo os principais compostos: neral (26,19%), cinamato de metila (18,52%), linalol (16,82%), 1-undecanol (5,60%), cis-óxido de linalol (4,41%), benzaldeído (3,92%) e 1-hexanol (3,48%). Para a hidrodestilação com arraste de gás nitrogênio, trinta compostos foram identificados, sendo que, em maior porcentagem de área, destacaram-se: cinamato de metila (30,41%), neral (24,46%), β-ionona (13,81%), linalol (4,0%) e acido butanoico (2,19%). O presente estudo revelou que os resíduos de maracujá apresentam compostos voláteis que podem ser extraídos na forma de aromas, apresentando potencial para gerar essências naturais com valor agregado.
The physical-chemical quality changes in mangaba fruit were studied. The fruit which attained full development at half-ripe stage were harvested and initially stored at 6, 8, 10 and 12±1ºC for four days. After this period, the fruit were transferred to an acclimatized room (24±2ºC) and maintained for five days. For control purposes, recently harvested fruit were stored directly in an acclimatized room (24±2ºC) for six days. After the transfer and storage at 24ºC, fruit were analyzed daily for their vitamin-C, soluble solids (ºBrix), titratable acidity, pH and firmness contents. In fruit directly stored at 24ºC, there was a sharp fall in vitamin C and acid contents. The fruit firmness decrease, after four days of storage, and they turned totally ripe. The fruit which were initially maintained at 6 or 8ºC did not show any significative difference in physical-chemical quality during the storage.
O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as mudanças físico-químicas e qualidade da mangaba. Frutos totalmente desenvolvidos, no estádio verde-maduro, foram colhidos e armazenados inicialmente em 6, 8, 10 e 2±1ºC em câmaras frias por 4 dias. Após este período, os frutos foram transferidos a câmaras climatizadas (24±2ºC) e mantidos por 5 dias. Para o controle, os frutos recém-colhidos foram armazenados diretamente em sala climatizada (24±2ºC) por 6 dias. Após o período de refrigeração, os mesmos foram transferidos para armazenamento a 24ºC, diariamente foram analisados os teores de vitamina-C, sólidos solúveis (ºBrix), acidez titulável, pH e firmeza. Frutos armazenados diretamente a 24ºC, houve uma queda significativa nos teores de vitamina C e ácidos. A firmeza dos frutos diminuiu, após 4 dias de armazenamento, após esse período apresentaram totalmente maduros. Frutos que foram mantidos inicialmente em 6 ou 8ºC não mostraram nenhuma diferença significativa na qualidade física química durante o armazenamento.
Despite the increasing commercial interest in atemoya in Brazil, this fruit has a very limited shelf-life. The present work intended to evaluate the storage of atemoya cv. Gefner under different packing systems and cold storage periods. A factorial of 3 x 5 completely randomized design was used (three packing systems: control (unpacked), individually packed with PVC films, and placed in polyester trays wrapped in PVC film for five different storage periods), with three replicates. Weight loss, skin and pulp color, Soluble Solids (SS), Total Tritable Acidity (TTA), vitamin C, pulp pH, and water activity at harvest were recorded every three days of storage. Modified atmosphere did not influence the skin color, but it preserved the pulp brightness and reduced weight loss of the unpacked fruits. SS and TTA levels increased during the storage of unpacked fruits as did the vitamin C contents. Cold storage was efficient for the atemoya preservation, which presented good appearance after 15 days of storage.
O interesse comercial pela atemóia é crescente no Brasil. Sabe-se que é uma fruta com vida útil bastante limitada. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita de atemóias cv. Gefner submetidas a embalagens e armazenamento refrigerado. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 3 x 5 (três embalagens: controle (sem embalagem); embalados individualmente com filme de PVC; colocados em bandejas de poliestireno envolvidas com filme de PVC em cinco tempos de armazenamento), com três repetições. Avaliou-se a perda de massa fresca; coloração da casca e da polpa; Sólidos Solúveis (SS); Acidez Total Titulável (ATT); vitamina C; pH da polpa e atividade de água por ocasião da colheita, a cada três dias de armazenamento. O uso da atmosfera modificada não influenciou na coloração da casca, mas preservou a luminosidade da polpa e reduziu a perda de massa fresca dos frutos. Os teores de SS e ATT aumentaram durante o armazenamento, e foram maiores nos frutos sem embalagens, assim como o teor de vitamina C. O uso de refrigeração foi eficiente na conservação da atemóias 'Gefner', que, após 15 dias de armazenamento ainda apresentavam qualidade para serem comercializados.