OBJECTIVES: Women with invasive placentation (IP) are at high risk of life-threatening hemorrhage. In the last two decades, less invasive surgical approaches combined with endovascular procedures have proven to be safe. Most case series describe the use of temporary balloon occlusion and embolization, either combined or not. Concerning hemorrhage rates, each separate interventional approach performs better than surgery alone does, yet it is not clear whether the combination of multiple interventional techniques can be beneficial and promote a lower incidence of intrapartum bleeding. We aim to evaluate whether combining temporary balloon occlusion of the internal iliac artery and uterine artery embolization promotes better hemorrhage control than do other individual interventional approaches reported in the scientific literature in the context of cesarean birth followed by hysterectomy in patients with IP. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with confirmed IP who underwent temporary balloon occlusion and embolization of the internal iliac arteries followed by puerperal hysterectomy. We compared patient results to data extracted from a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of the current literature that focused on interventional procedures in patients with IP. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients underwent the procedure during the study period in our institution. The mean volume of packed red blood cells and the estimated blood loss were 487.9 mL and 1193 mL, respectively. Four patients experienced complications that were attributed to the endovascular procedure. CONCLUSION: The combination of temporary balloon occlusion and uterine artery embolization does not seem to promote better hemorrhage control than each procedure performed individually does.
ABSTRACT Mechanical thrombectomy using stent retrievers is the standard treatment for acute ischemic stroke that results from large vessel occlusions. The direct aspiration first pass technique (ADAPT) has been proposed as an efficient, fast, and cost-effective thrombectomy strategy. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of ADAPT. Methods Recanalization was assessed using the modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) score. Neurological outcomes were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scale. Results Fifteen patients were evaluated. The mTICI score was 2b-3 in 80%, and it was 3 in 60% of patients. No intracranial hemorrhage was seen. At three months, modified Rankin Scale scores ≤ 2 were observed in 60% of patients and the mortality rate was 13.3%. Conclusions The ADAPT appears to be a safe, effective, and fast recanalization strategy for treatment of acute ischemic stroke resulting from large vessel occlusions.
RESUMO A trombectomia mecânica com stent retrievers é o tratamento padrão ouro do acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo (AVCi) por oclusão de grandes artérias. A técnica de aspiração primária (ADAPT) tem sido proposta como uma estratégia de trombectomia rápida e com boa custo-efetividade. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a segurança e eficácia da técnica ADAPT. Métodos A recanalização foi avaliada utilizando a escala mTICI. Os desfechos neurológicos foram avaliados utilizando as escalas do NIHSS e mRS. Resultados Quinze pacientes foram avaliados. Foram obtidas taxas de mTICI = 2b-3 em 80% e TICI = 3 em 60% dos pacientes. Não ocorreram hemorragias intracranianas. Em 3 meses as taxas de mRS≤2 e mortalidade foram respectivamente 60% e 13.3%. Conclusão A técnica ADAPT parece ser uma estratégia de recanalização rápida, segura e efetiva para o tratamento do AVC por oclusão de grandes artérias.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical response and success rate after periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome and to report the safety of endovascular treatment and its rate of complications. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome in our department from January 2012 to November 2015. Data were analyzed based on patient background, imaging findings, embolized veins, rate of complications, and clinical response as indicated by the visual analog pain scale. RESULTS: We performed periuterine varices embolization in 22 patients during the study, four of which required a second embolization. Seventeen patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the first embolization and three patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the second embolization. Minor complications were observed in our patients, such as postural hypotension, postoperative pain, and venous perforation during the procedure, without clinical repercussion. CONCLUSION: Periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome appears to be an effective and safe technique.
Epilepsy is a disease with serious consequences for patients and society. In many cases seizures are sufficiently disabling to justify surgical evaluation. In this context, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most valuable tools for the preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci. Because these lesions show a large variety of presentations (including subtle imaging characteristics), their analysis requires careful and systematic interpretation of MRI data. Several studies have shown that 3 Tesla (T) MRI provides a better image quality than 1.5 T MRI regarding the detection and characterization of structural lesions, indicating that high-field-strength imaging should be considered for patients with intractable epilepsy who might benefit from surgery. Likewise, advanced MRI postprocessing and quantitative analysis techniques such as thickness and volume measurements of cortical gray matter have emerged and in the near future, these techniques will routinely enable more precise evaluations of such patients. Finally, the familiarity with radiologic findings of the potential epileptogenic substrates in association with combined use of higher field strengths (3 T, 7 T, and greater) and new quantitative analytical post-processing techniques will lead to improvements regarding the clinical imaging of these patients. We present a pictorial review of the major pathologies related to partial epilepsy, highlighting the key findings of 3 T MRI.
OBJECTIVES: Carotid artery stenting is an emerging revascularization alternative to carotid endarterectomy. However, guidelines have recommended carotid artery stenting only if the rate of periprocedural stroke or death is < 6% among symptomatic patients and < 3% among asymptomatic patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare clinical outcomes of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who had undergone carotid artery stenting as a first-intention treatment. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent carotid artery stenting by our interventional neuroradiology team was conducted. Patients were divided into two groups: symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The primary endpoints were ipsilateral ischemic stroke, ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 30 days. The secondary endpoints included ipsilateral ischemic stroke, ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage, ipsilateral transient ischemic attack and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events between the 1- and 12-month follow-ups. RESULTS: A total of 200 consecutive patients were evaluated. The primary endpoints obtained in the symptomatic vs. asymptomatic groups were ipsilateral stroke (2.4% vs. 2.7%, p = 1.00), ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage (0.8% vs. 0.0%, p = 1.00) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (4.7% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.71). The secondary endpoints obtained in the symptomatic vs. asymptomatic groups were ipsilateral ischemic stroke (0.0% vs. 0.0%), ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage (0.0% vs. 0.0%), ipsilateral TIA (0.0% vs. 0.0%, p = 1.00) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (11.2% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, carotid artery stenting was similarly safe and effective when performed as a first-intention treatment in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The study results comply with the safety requirements from current recommendations to perform carotid artery stenting as an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy.
Arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus are rare and difficult to diagnose. They are classified into dural cavernous sinus fistulae or direct carotid-cavernous fistulae. Despite the similarity of symptoms between both types, a precise diagnosis is essential since the treatment is specific for each type of fistula. Imaging findings are remarkably similar in both dural cavernous sinus fistulae and carotid-cavernous fistulae, but it is possible to differentiate one type from the other. Amongst the available imaging methods (Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography), angiography is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. The present essay is aimed at didactically presenting the classification and imaging findings of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae.
As fístulas arteriovenosas da região do seio cavernoso são lesões raras e difíceis de diagnosticar. Elas são classificadas em fístulas durais do seio cavernoso e fístulas carótido-cavernosas diretas. Apesar de apresentarem sintomas semelhantes, o diagnóstico preciso é importante, já que o tratamento é específico para cada uma delas. As alterações encontradas nos exames de imagem são muito semelhantes, tanto nas fístulas durais do seio cavernoso quanto nas fístulas carótido-cavernosas, contudo, é possível diferenciá-las. Dentre os exames de imagem disponíveis (ultrassonografia de órbita com Doppler, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética e angiografia com subtração digital), a angiografia é considerada padrão ouro para o diagnóstico e classificação das fístulas arteriovenosas da região do seio cavernoso. O objetivo deste ensaio é mostrar de modo didático a classificação e o aspecto por imagem das fístulas arteriovenosas do seio cavernoso.
OBJECTIVE: Large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke is associated with low recanalization rates under intravenous thrombolysis. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the Solitaire AB stent in treating acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively evaluated. The neurological outcomes were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the modified Rankin Scale. Time was recorded from the symptom onset to the recanalization and procedure time. Recanalization was assessed using the thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were evaluated. The mean patient age was 65, and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores ranged from 7 to 28 (average 17±6.36) at presentation. The vessel occlusions occurred in the middle cerebral artery (61.9%), distal internal carotid artery (14.3%), tandem carotid occlusion (14.3%), and basilarartery (9.5%). Primary thrombectomy, rescue treatment and a bridging approach represented 66.6%, 28.6%, and 4.8% of the performed procedures, respectively. The mean time from symptom onset to recanalization was 356.5±107.8 minutes (range, 80-586 minutes). The mean procedure time was 60.4±58.8 minutes (range, 14-240 minutes). The overall recanalization rate (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction scores of 3 or 2b) was 90.4%, and the symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate was 14.2%. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores at discharge ranged from 0 to 25 (average 6.9±7). At three months, 61.9% of the patients had a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2, with an overall mortality rate of 9.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-arterial thrombectomy with the Solitaire AB device appears to be safe and effective. Large randomized trials are necessary to confirm the benefits of this approach in acute ischemic stroke.
Peripheral vascular malformations represent a spectrum of lesions that appear through the lifetime and can be found in the whole body. Such lesions are uncommon and are frequently confounded with infantile hemangioma, a common benign neoplastic lesion. In the presence of such lesions, the correlation between the clinical and radiological findings is extremely important to achieve a correct diagnosis, which will guide the best therapeutic approach. The most recent classifications for peripheral vascular malformations are based on the blood flow (low or high) and on the main vascular components (arterial, capillary, lymphatic or venous). Peripheral vascular malformations represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, and complementary methods such as computed tomography, Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, in association with clinical findings can provide information regarding blood flow characteristics and lesions extent. Arteriography and venography confirm the diagnosis, evaluate the lesions extent and guide the therapeutic decision making. Generally, low flow vascular malformations are percutaneously treated with sclerosing agents injection, while in high flow lesions the approach is endovascular, with permanent liquid or solid embolization agents.
As malformações vasculares periféricas compreendem um espectro de lesões que se tornam aparentes no decorrer da vida e podem ser encontradas em praticamente todo o corpo. São pouco comuns e frequentemente confundidas com o hemangioma infantil. Estas doenças são completamente distintas tanto em relação à história clínica como ao prognóstico e às formas de tratamento. Nestas lesões, a história evolutiva e as características do exame físico são de extrema importância para o adequado diagnóstico clinicorradiológico, que guiará a melhor alternativa terapêutica. As classificações mais recentes dividem as malformações vasculares periféricas levando em consideração o fluxo sanguíneo (alto e baixo) e os componentes vasculares envolvidos (arteriais, capilares, linfáticos e venosos). As malformações vasculares periféricas representam um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico, e exames complementares como tomografia computadorizada, ultrassonografia com Doppler e ressonância magnética, em conjunto com a história clínica, podem trazer informações quanto às características de fluxo e à extensão das lesões. Arteriografia e flebografia confirmam o diagnóstico, avaliam a sua extensão e orientam a decisão terapêutica. Malformações de baixo fluxo geralmente são tratadas por abordagem percutânea e injeção de agente esclerosante, enquanto para as malformações de alto fluxo o acesso é endovascular com uso de agentes embolizantes permanentes líquidos ou sólidos.