Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MS) and periodontitis (PD), through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Original observational studies assessing the association between MS and PD in adults, published before May 11th (2017), were identified through electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guideline was used. For studies to be included, they had to mention the criteria used to diagnose MS and to have used at least one clinical measure to diagnose PD. There was no language restriction. Three reviewers independently identified eligible studies for possible inclusion in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational studies. A random model meta-analysis was conducted. The strategies used to investigate heterogeneity were sequential analysis, subgroup analysis, univariate meta-regression and sensitivity analysis. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, and 26 had enough information to be included in the meta-analysis, totaling 52,504 patients. MS and PD were associated with an odds ratio of 1.38 (95%CI 1.26–1.51; I2 = 92.7%; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that complete periodontal examination (I2 = 70.6%; p < 0.001) partially explained the variability between studies. The present findings suggest an association between MS and PD. Individuals with MS are 38% more likely to present PD than individuals without this condition. Prospective studies should be conducted to establish cause and effect relations between MS and PD.
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare negative impacts of oral conditions in Oral Heath Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) scores in pregnant women receiving or not comprehensive periodontal treatment. This randomized controlled clinical trial included pregnant women aged between 18 and 35 years old. Participants were randomized in a test group with 96 and a control group with 114 women. Patients in the test group received comprehensive periodontal treatment, supra and subgingival scaling and root-planning and periodontal maintenance appointments. The OHIP-14 was applied before and after treatment. The primary outcome was changes in OHIP-14 scores after follow-up period. The impact of having received or not comprehensive periodontal treatment on the change of the OHIP-14 scores was also investigated. Both groups showed significant reduction in OHIP-14 scores and effect size for the test group was 0.60 and 0.36 for the control group. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that participants of the control group had 5.9-fold odds (CI 95% 1.88-18.52) of worsening in OHIP-14 scores and their perception of oral conditions in relation to test group. Comprehensive periodontal treatment during pregnancy can reduce the negative impacts in OHRQoL.
The aim of this study was to compare the smile esthetic perception of patients, dental students and dentists faced to different situations concerning gingival margin position. A total of 123 individuals (41 patients, 41 dental students and 41 dentists) completed a structured questionnaire and evaluated 6 pictures of the same smile modified in Adobe Photoshop® image-editing software representing: no gingival recession, 2 mm recession in one maxillary lateral incisor, 2 mm recession in both maxillary lateral incisors, 2 mm recession in one maxillary canine, 2 mm recession in both maxillary canines and generalized 2 mm recession. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to rate the esthetic perception. Mean VAS values were calculated and compared among gingival situations as well as group of respondents by one-way ANOVA, with an alpha level of 0.05. VAS analysis revealed that mean values ranged from 4.2 (±1.8) to 6.8 (±1.7). Images with no gingival recession received the highest score by all groups, with statistically significant differences among dentists and dental students. However, patients scored images with no recession with significantly lower ranks as compared with dentists and dental students. No significant differences were observed among patients for any of the situations. When dentists and dental students were compared, the worst situation was observed for generalized gingival recession, with scores 4.2 (±1.8) and 4.9 (±1.8), respectively. Patients and dental professionals had different perceptions about esthetics related to gingival margin position.
O objetivo do estudo foi comparar a percepção estética do sorriso de pacientes, estudantes de odontologia e dentistas, em relação a diferentes situações de posição da margem gengival. Cento e vinte e três indivíduos (41 pacientes, 41 estudantes de odontologia e 41 dentistas) responderam um questionário estruturado e avaliaram 6 fotografias de um mesmo sorriso modificadas no Photoshop representando: periodonto inalterado (sem recessão gengival), recessão de 2 mm em um incisivo lateral superior, recessão de 2 mm em ambos incisivos laterais superiores, recessão de 2 mm em um canino superior, recessão de 2 mm em ambos caninos superiores e recessão generalizada de 2 mm. Uma escala visual analógica (EVA) foi usada para graduar a percepção estética. Médias da EVA foram calculadas e comparadas entre as situações gengivais, bem como entre os grupos de respondentes pela ANOVA de um critério com nível de significância de 0,05. A análise da EVA revelou que os valores médios variaram entre de 4,2 (±1,8) a 6,8 (±1,7). Periodonto inalterado foi avaliado com o maior escore por todos os grupos (com diferença estatisticamente significativa entre dentistas e estudantes de odontologia). Entretanto, pacientes avaliaram periodonto inalterado com valores menores quando comparados a dentistas e estudantes de odontologia. Entre pacientes nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada para nenhuma das situações apresentadas. Quando dentistas e estudantes de odontologia foram considerados, a pior situação foi observada para recessão gengival generalizada (4,2±1,8 e 4,9±1,8, respectivamente). Pacientes e profissionais da odontologia demonstraram diferentes percepções sobre as situações de estética relacionadas à posição da margem gengival.
Periodontal diseases comprise a number of infectious and inflammatory conditions brought about by the interaction between supragingival and subgingival biofilms and the host inflammatory response. Periodontal diseases should be considered systemic conditions. This means that they are both modulated by the body's systems and play a role as a risk factor for systemic derangements. The current evidence supports some of these interactions, such as smoking as a risk factor for periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, as both influenced by and influencing inflammatory changes in the periodontal tissue. Other potential associations are still being researched, such as obesity, hormonal changes, cardiovascular disease, and adverse outcomes in pregnancy. These, and others, still require further investigation before the repercussions of periodontal disease can be fully elucidated. Nevertheless, at the present time, the treatment of periodontal diseases-and, most importantly, their prevention-enables adequate intervention as a means of ensuring periodontal health.