ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe a Bacillus subtilis expression system based on genetically modified B. subtilis. Abaecin, an antimicrobial peptide obtained from Apis mellifera, can enhance the effect of pore-forming peptides from other species on the inhibition of bacterial growth. For the exogenous expression, the abaecin gene was fused with a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site, a promoter Pglv, and a mature beta-glucanase signal peptide. Also, a B. subtilis expression system was constructed. The recombinant abaecin gene was expressed and purified as a recombinant protein in the culture supernatant. The purified abaecin did not inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli strain K88. Cecropin A and hymenoptaecin exhibited potent bactericidal activities at concentrations of 1 and 1.5 µM. Combinatorial assays revealed that cecropin A and hymenoptaecin had sublethal concentrations of 0.3 and 0.5 µM. This potentiating functional interaction represents a promising therapeutic strategy. It provides an opportunity to address the rising threat of multidrug-resistant pathogens that are recalcitrant to conventional antibiotics.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the temporal and spatial variations of soil respiration (Rs) in a greenhouse, as well as the factors causing them, in a soil covered with different mulching types and cultivated with cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Four mulching treatments were applied to a soil cultivated with cucumber: CK, conventional practice without mulch; FM, plastic film mulch; CM, combined mulch of plastic film with wheat straw; and SM, wheat straw mulch. Rs was measured by a soil respiration chamber connected to a portable infrared gas analyzer, and the differences of Rs between mulchings were evaluated. Rs was significantly lower in the control than in the treatments with mulch. In addition, Rs was higher in the position on the soil near plants (5.4 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) than in the positions between plants (4.7 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) and rows (3.9 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). Soil water content and temperature had an interacted effect on Rs. Cucumber root biomass and root vigor should also be incorporated as predictor variables for Rs in the succession crops, mainly for accurately estimating carbon cycling in agroecosystems in a greenhouse.
Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as variações temporais e espaciais da respiração do solo (Rs) em casa de vegetação, assim como os fatores que as causam, em um solo com diferentes coberturas, cultivado com pepino (Cucumis sativus). Quatro tratamentos de cobertura foram aplicados ao solo cultivado com pepino: CK, prática convencional sem cobertura; FM, cobertura com filme plástico; CM, cobertura com filme plástico e palha de trigo; e SM, cobertura com palha de trigo. A Rs foi medida por meio de uma câmara de respiração de solo, conectada a um analisador de gás infravermelho, e as diferenças de Rs entre as coberturas foram avaliadas. A Rs foi significativamente menor no controle do que nos tratamentos com cobertura. Além disso, a Rs foi mais elevada nas posições de solo próximas das plantas (5,4 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) do que nas posições entre plantas (4,7 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) e entre linhas (3,9 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). O teor de água no solo e a temperatura do solo apresentaram efeito interativo sobre a Rs. A biomassa e o vigor radiculares do pepino devem ser incorporados como variáveis preditoras de Rs nos cultivos em sucessão, principalmente para a estimação acurada do ciclo do carbono em agroecossistemas, em casa de vegetação.
Crop residues are the primary source of carbon input in the soil carbon pool. Crop rotation can impact the plant biomass returned to the soil, and influence soil respiration. To study the effect of previous crops on soil respiration in cucumber (Cucumis statirus L.) fields in solar greenhouses, soil respiration, plant height, leaf area and yield were measured during the growing season (from the end of Sept to the beginning of Jun the following year) from 2007 to 2010. The cucumber was grown following fallow (CK), kidney bean (KB), cowpea (CP), maize for green manure (MGM), black bean for green manure (BGM), tomato (TM), bok choy (BC). As compared with CK, KB, CP, MGM and BGM may increase soil respiration, while TM and BC may decrease soil respiration at full fruit stage in cucumber fields. Thus attention to the previous crop arrangement is a possible way of mitigating soil respiration in vegetable fields. Plant height, leaf area and yield had similar variation trends under seven previous crop treatments. The ratio of yield to soil respiration revealed that MGM is the crop of choice previous to cucumber when compared with CK, KB, CP, BGM, TM and BC.