OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the degree of unilateral spatial neglect during the acute phase of stroke and long-term functional independence. METHODS: This was a prospective study of right ischemic stroke patients in which the independent variable was the degree of spatial neglect and the outcome that was measured was functional independence. The potential confounding factors included sex, age, stroke severity, topography of the lesion, risk factors, glycemia and the treatment received. Unilateral spatial neglect was measured using the line cancellation test, the star cancellation test and the line bisection test within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. Functional independence was measured using the modified Rankin and Barthel scales at 90 days after discharge. The relationship between unilateral spatial neglect and functional independence was analyzed using multiple logistic regression that was corrected for confounding factors. RESULTS: We studied 60 patients with a median age of 68 (34-89) years, 52% of whom were male and 74% of whom were Caucasian. The risk for moderate to severe disability increased with increasing star cancellation test scores (OR=1.14 [1.03-1.26], p=0.01) corrected for the stroke severity, which was a confounding factor that had a statistically positive association with disability (OR=1.63 [1.13-2.65], p=0.01). The best chance of functional independence decreased with increasing star cancellation test scores (OR=0.86 [0.78-0.96], p=0.006) corrected for the stroke severity, which was a confounding factor that had a statistically negative association with independence (OR=0.66 [0.48-0.92], p=0.017). CONCLUSION: The severity of unilateral spatial neglect in acute stroke worsens the degree of long-term disability and functional independence.
Abstract An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country's biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms, while the Atlantic Rainforest is the richest one for Angiosperms. There was a considerable increment in the number of species and endemism rates for biomes, except for the Amazon that showed a decrease of 2.5% of recorded endemics. However, well over half of Brazillian seed plant species (57.4%) is endemic to this territory. The proportion of life-forms varies among different biomes: trees are more expressive in the Amazon and Atlantic Rainforest biomes while herbs predominate in the Pampa, and lianas are more expressive in the Amazon, Atlantic Rainforest, and Pantanal. This compilation serves not only to quantify Brazilian biodiversity, but also to highlight areas where there information is lacking and to provide a framework for the challenge faced in conserving Brazil's unique and diverse flora.
Resumo Um levantamento atualizado das plantas com sementes e análises relevantes acerca desta biodiversidade são apresentados. Este trabalho se iniciou em 2010 com a publicação do Catálogo de Plantas e Fungos e, desde então vem sendo atualizado por mais de 430 especialistas trabalhando online. O Brasil abriga atualmente 32.086 espécies nativas de Angiospermas e 23 espécies nativas de Gimnospermas e estes novos dados mostram um aumento de 3% da riqueza em relação a 2010. A Amazônia é o Domínio Fitogeográfico com o maior número de espécies de Gimnospermas, enquanto que a Floresta Atlântica possui a maior riqueza de Angiospermas. Houve um crescimento considerável no número de espécies e nas taxas de endemismo para a maioria dos Domínios (Caatinga, Cerrado, Floresta Atlântica, Pampa e Pantanal), com exceção da Amazônia que apresentou uma diminuição de 2,5% de endemicidade. Entretanto, a maior parte das plantas com sementes que ocorrem no Brasil (57,4%) é endêmica deste território. A proporção de formas de vida varia de acordo com os diferentes Domínios: árvores são mais expressivas na Amazônia e Floresta Atlântica do que nos outros biomas, ervas são dominantes no Pampa e as lianas apresentam riqueza expressiva na Amazônia, Floresta Atlântica e Pantanal. Este trabalho não só quantifica a biodiversidade brasileira, mas também indica as lacunas de conhecimento e o desafio a ser enfrentado para a conservação desta flora.
INTRODUCTIONThe retrocaval ureter is a rare congenital anomaly. The extrinsic compression may be responsible for obstruction and pain symptoms. The laparoscopic approach has been used with good results and less morbidity than the open surgery. Herein we describe a case of retrocaval ureter treated with LESS. To our knowledge, this represents the second such case reported in the literature, and the first without using any special devices, such as, single port or bended instruments.PRESENTATIONFemale, 23 years, complaining of right low back pain for a long time and recurrent urinary tract infection. Renal ultrasound demonstrated right-sided hydronephrosis and intravenous urography suggested the presence of retrocaval ureter. DTPA renal scintigraphy confirms delay in the elimination of contrast through the right kidney. A laparoendoscopic single-site repair was planned.The patient was placed in rightside-up modified flank position. A semicircular intra-umbilical incision was made and the conventional trocars (one 10 mm and two 5 mm) were inserted through the same incision on different points of the aponeurosis. The colon was dissected medially and the proximal ureter lateral to the vena cava was identified and dissected. An extra corporeal repair with Vycril 2-0 was used to facilitate the ureteral dissection and the anastomosis. A segment of ureter was ressected due to the tortuosity. Two 4-0 Vycril sutures were used to perform a running anastomosis. An ureteral stent was placed after the posterior layer on an antegrade fashion. A suction drain was left through the umbilicus.RESULTSThe total operative time was 145 min. The blood loss was minimal. The patient was discharged on the third postoperative day and resumed total activity about 10 days after surgery. The double J was removed within 4 weeks.DISCUSSIONAlbeit technically challenging, LESS repair for retrocaval ureter might represent a feasible new treatment option for this rare anatomic anomaly. Special devices could help on the procedure, however they are not essencials.
PURPOSE: to describe the clinical signs and symptoms of patients with bone metaplasia and to assess the risk factors for changes in these symptoms after removal of the bone fragment. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted on 16 patients with a diagnosis of bone fragments in the uterine cavity during the period comprising July 2006 to January 2009. The inclusion criterion was the detection of a bone fragment removed from the uterine cavity. The presence of bone tissue in the endometrial cavity was histologically confirmed in all patients. The data of all patients were obtained before and after removal by means of a questionnaire for the evaluation of the effect of removal on the symptoms and for the search of possible factors related to the onset of the disease. RESULTS: half the patients (8/16) had hemorrhagic symptoms and one third (6/16) were infertile. Removal of the fragments was quite effective in improving the complaints, with the disappearance of symptoms in all cases of hemorrhage and of pelvic pain. CONCLUSION: removal of bone fragments can restore the fertility of selected patients whose infertility is caused by bone metaplasia and is quite effective in leading to improvement in patients with pelvic pain and menorrhage.
OBJETIVO: apresentar o quadro clínico das pacientes com metaplasia óssea e avaliar os fatores de risco, as mudanças dos sinais e sintomas após a retirada do fragmento ósseo. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um estudo transversal com 16 pacientes diagnosticadas com fragmentos ósseos na cavidade uterina no período de julho de 2006 a janeiro de 2009. O critério de inclusão foi o achado de fragmento ósseo retirado da cavidade uterina. Todas as pacientes tiveram confirmação histológica de presença de tecido ósseo na cavidade endometrial. Obtivemos os dados de todas as pacientes antes e depois da retirada por meio de um questionário para avaliar o efeito da retirada sobre a sintomatologia das pacientes, além da pesquisa de possíveis fatores relacionados ao aparecimento da doença. RESULTADOS: metade das pacientes (8/16) tinha sintomas hemorrágicos e um terço (6/16) apresentava infertilidade. A retirada dos fragmentos foi efetiva na melhora das queixas, havendo desaparecimento dos sintomas em todos os casos de menorragia e dor pélvica. CONCLUSÃO: A retirada do fragmento ósseo pode restaurar a fertilidade em pacientes selecionadas e que tenham como causa a metaplasia óssea, além de ser bastante efetiva em proporcionar melhora nos casos que cursam com dor pélvica e menorragia.