Titanium dioxide nanostructured catalysts (nanotubes) doped with different metals (silver, gold, copper, palladium and zinc) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method in order to promote an increase in their photocatalytic activity under visible light. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and specific area and pore volume determination. The materials' photocatalytic activity was evaluated by rhodamine B decomposition in a glass batch reactor. Under UV radiation, only nanotubes doped with palladium were more active than the TiO2 P25, but the samples doped with silver, palladium and gold exhibited better results than the undoped samples under visible light.
TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized by hydrothermal method and doped with three nitrogen compounds to enhance photocatalytic activity under visible light. Catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and specific surface area and pore volume determined by BET and BJH methods, respectively. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible and UV radiations. Results showed doped-nanotubes were more efficient under visible light. The best photocatalytic activity was for sample NTT-7-600/NH3I, being 30% higher than the non-doped sample.
The tebuconazole photocatalytic degradation kinetics was studied in a batch reactor using TiO2 (P25-Degussa) as catalyst and a high pressure mercury lamp. The photolysis, adsorption and irradiation effects in the reaction rate were evaluated. Afterward, the suspension catalyst concentration and initial pH to the maximum reaction rate was determined. It was observed that the reaction rate can be approached by a pseudo-first order, with a maximum kinetics constant at 260 mg L-1catalyst concentration and pH 7.7.
Direct decomposition of NO on copper supported on zeolite catalysts such as MCM-22 and Beta was compared with that on the thoroughly studied Cu-ZSM-5. The catalysts were prepared by ion-exchange in basic media. They were characterized by atomic absorption, surface area, nitrogen adsorption at 77K, X-ray diffraction and temperature programmed reduction. The products of the reaction were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a gas cell. Catalytic activity tests indicated that zeolite catalysts, like Beta and MCM-22, lead to NO conversion values comparable to ZSM-5.
Nickel and palladium dispersed on titania support were submitted to reductive treatment, under hydrogen, at 200 and 500 ºC. After the reductive thermal treatment the materials were exposed to carbon monoxide (10 Torr) and analyzed in the infrared region. The increasing of the electronic density in the metallic d subshell, produced by the reductive thermal treatment, was monitored by the infrared stretching band shift of carbon monoxide adsorbed and it was interpreted as a consequence of the metal-support interactions. The highest effect was observed for Pd/TiO2 system. From the FTIR spectra was also observed that the hydrogen spillover was stronger on Pd/TiO2 than Ni/TiO2 system.
Níquel e paládio dispersos no suporte titânia foram submetidos a tratamento redutivo com hidrogênio a 200 e 500 ºC. Após esse tratamento os materiais foram expostos a monóxido de carbono (10 Torr) e analisados na região do infravermelho. O aumento da densidade eletrônica no subnível d do metal, produzido pelo tratamento térmico redutivo, foi monitorado pelo deslocamento da banda de estiramento do monóxido de carbono adsorvido, e foi interpretado como sendo conseqüência da interação metal-suporte. O maior efeito foi observado para o sistema Pd/TiO2. A partir dos espectros no infravermelho, foi possível observar também que o spillover de hidrogênio é mais forte no Pd/TiO2 do que no Ni/TiO2.