Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare negative impacts of oral conditions in Oral Heath Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) scores in pregnant women receiving or not comprehensive periodontal treatment. This randomized controlled clinical trial included pregnant women aged between 18 and 35 years old. Participants were randomized in a test group with 96 and a control group with 114 women. Patients in the test group received comprehensive periodontal treatment, supra and subgingival scaling and root-planning and periodontal maintenance appointments. The OHIP-14 was applied before and after treatment. The primary outcome was changes in OHIP-14 scores after follow-up period. The impact of having received or not comprehensive periodontal treatment on the change of the OHIP-14 scores was also investigated. Both groups showed significant reduction in OHIP-14 scores and effect size for the test group was 0.60 and 0.36 for the control group. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that participants of the control group had 5.9-fold odds (CI 95% 1.88-18.52) of worsening in OHIP-14 scores and their perception of oral conditions in relation to test group. Comprehensive periodontal treatment during pregnancy can reduce the negative impacts in OHRQoL.
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the clinical diagnosis of proximal gingivitis by comparing two methods: dental flossing and the gingival bleeding index (GBI). One hundred subjects (aged at least 18 years, with 15% of positive proximal sites for GBI, without proximal attachment loss) were randomized into five evaluation protocols. Each protocol consisted of two assessments with a 10-minute interval between them: first GBI/second floss, first floss/second GBI, first GBI/second GBI, first tooth floss/second floss, and first gum floss-second floss. The dental floss was slid against the tooth surface (TF) and the gingival tissue (GF). The evaluated proximal sites should present teeth with established point of contact and probing depth ≤ 3mm. One trained and calibrated examiner performed all the assessments. The mean percentages of agreement and disagreement were calculated for the sites with gingival bleeding in both evaluation methods (GBI and flossing). The primary outcome was the percentage of disagreement between the assessments in the different protocols. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, McNemar, chi-square and Tukey’s post hoc tests, with a 5% significance level. When gingivitis was absent in the first assessment (negative GBI), bleeding was detected in the second assessment by TF and GF in 41.7% (p < 0.001) and 50.7% (p < 0.001) of the sites, respectively. In the absence of gingivitis in the second assessment (negative GBI), TF and GF detected bleeding in the first assessment in 38.9% (p = 0.004) and 58.3% (p < 0.001) of the sites, respectively. TF and GF appears to be a better diagnostic indicator of proximal gingivitis than GBI.
Abstract Two previous clinical studies evaluated the effect of end-rounded versus tapered bristles of soft manual brushes on the removal of plaque and gingival abrasion. However, the combined effect of an abrasive dentifrice on these outcomes has yet to be understood. The purpose of the present study was to compare the incidence of gingival abrasion and the degree of plaque removal obtained after the use of toothbrushes with tapered or end-rounded bristles in the presence or absence of an abrasive dentifrice. The study involved a randomized, single-blind, crossover model (n = 39) with a split-mouth design. Subjects were instructed to refrain from performing oral hygiene procedures for 72 hours. Quadrants were randomized and subjects brushed with both types of toothbrushes using a dentifrice (relative dentin abrasion = ± 160). Plaque and gingival abrasion were assessed before and after brushing. After 7 days, the experiment was repeated without the dentifrice. The average reduction in plaque scores and the average increase in the number of abrasion sites were assessed by repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni’s post-hoc tests. End-rounded bristles removed significantly more plaque than tapered bristles, regardless of the use of a dentifrice. The dentifrice did not improve plaque removal. In the marginal area (cervical free gingiva), no difference in the incidence of gingival abrasion was detected between toothbrush types when used with a dentifrice (p ≥ 0.05). However, the dentifrice increased the incidence of abrasion (p < 0.001), irrespective of the toothbrush type tested. End-rounded bristles therefore removed plaque more effectively without causing a higher incidence of gingival abrasion when compared with tapered bristles. An abrasive dentifrice can increase the incidence of abrasion, and should be used with caution by individuals who are at risk of developing gingival recession.
Introduction Smoking is a risk factor for prevalence, severity and progression of periodontal disease and appears to suppress marginal periodontium inflammatory response. Purpose To correlate Visible Plaque Index (VPI) and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) in smokers and never-smokers, as well as GBI and bleeding on probing (BOP ) in these groups. Material and method We used baseline data of one quasi-experimental study in which 11 smokers and 14 subjects who never smoked were submitted to clinical periodontal examinations between September 2010 and October 2011. Result The correlation between VPI and GBI was positive for both groups, it was strong and statistically significant in subjects who had never smoked and moderate in smokers. Regarding GBI and BOP correlations were moderate for smokers and weaker for individuals who had never smoked. Conclusion Smokers have lower strength correlation between VPI and GBI compared to individuals who had never smoked resulting in a less pronounced marginal gingival bleeding.
Introdução O hábito de fumar é um fator de risco importante na prevalência, progressão e gravidade das doenças periodontais e parece suprimir a resposta inflamatória marginal no periodonto. Objetivo Correlacionar Índice de Placa visível (IPV) e Índice de Sangramento Gengival (ISG) em fumantes e indivíduos que nunca fumaram, bem como correlacionar ISG e o sangramento à sondagem (SS) nesses dois grupos. Material e método Foram utilizados dados de baseline de um estudo quasi-experimental, no qual 11 pacientes fumantes e 14 indivíduos que nunca fumaram foram submetidos a exames clínicos periodontais no período de setembro de 2010 e outubro de 2011. Resultado A correlação entre IPV e ISG foi positiva para ambos os grupos, sendo forte e estatisticamente significante nos indivíduos que nunca fumaram e moderada nos fumantes. Com relação ao ISG e SS houve moderada correlação para os fumantes e fraca para os indivíduos que nunca fumaram. Conclusão Fumantes apresentam uma correlação entre IPV e ISG de menor força em relação aos indivíduos que nunca fumaram resultando em um sangramento gengival marginal menos pronunciado.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of smoking on response to nonsurgical periodontal therapy using the primary outcome measure of bleeding on probing (BoP). An periodontist performed periodontal therapy on 11 smokers and 14 never smokers with periodontitis. Two examiners assessed visible plaque index, gingival bleeding index, probing pocket depth (PPD), BoP, suppuration on probing and clinical attachment level (CAL), at baseline and three months after therapy. BoP was categorized as 0 (absent), 1 (small bleeding point) and 2 (blood flow from the sulcus). Total BoP value was obtained by summing values of 1 and 2. All subjects had significant reductions in mean PPD and percentages of sites with BoP, with no difference between the groups. Only never smokers presented statistically significant CAL gain. BoP was significantly and consistently reduced at sites with initial PPDs of 1–3 mm and 4–6 mm in both groups. At sites with deep PPD ( ≥ 7mm), never smokers showed a greater mean reduction in the number of sites with BoP than did smokers (p < 0.05). Never smokers had significantly greater reduction in BoP 2 than smokers, at sites with moderate and deep baseline PPDs. The first group had a significant increase of BoP 1, at sites with initial PPDs of 4-6 mm. Thus, periodontal therapy reduced BoP in both groups. However, smoking could negatively affect the BoP reduction at deeper sites after nonsurgical periodontal therapy.
Gingival overgrowth (GO) is a frequent finding in patients treated with cyclosporine (CsA). This study investigated the prevalence and severity of GO in patients who received kidney transplant and CsA therapy, as well as associations with pharmacological and clinical factors. This cross-sectional study included 63 kidney transplant recipients who were treated with CsA in a university hospital. Demographic, pharmacological, and periodontal data were collected. The primary variable was GO. Independent sample t- and chi-square tests were used to compare means in groups with versusl without GO. The response rate was 86.3%. Overall, 40% of patients had some degree of GO. Eleven individuals presented GO scores > 10%, and 5 individuals reached 30%. The mean GO percentage was low (6.79 ± 15.83). Patients that were concurrently under nifedipine treatment showed a non-significant trend toward a greater prevalence of GO. Mean CsA dosage and serum levels were 3.20 ± 0.94 mg/kg/d and 156.12 ± 162.75 ng/mL, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with versusl without GO nor between the groups receiving nifedipine, no drug, or verapamil. The GO prevalence and severity rates were lower than those reported in previous studies and seemed to be independent of drug interactions.
Leukemia has been associated with oral manifestations. However, the available literature on this topic consists of mostly reports of cases, without data about the periodontal parameters that may be under the influence of hematologic factors. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the correlation between the Gingival Index and Bleeding on Probing with the platelet count in patients with leukemia. Patients with diagnosis of any kind of leukemia, at any stage of treatment, having a minimum age of 14 years, treated at the Department of Hematology-Oncology of the University Hospital of Santa Maria, Brazil, between December 2009 and March 2010, were assessed. Excluded patients were: edentulous, with orthodontic appliances, with psychomotor disturbances, requiring antibiotic prophylaxis for the examinations, or those using medications associated with gingival swelling. Two trained and calibrated examiners evaluated the Plaque Index, Gingival Index (GI), Probing depth, Bleeding on Probing (BOP), and Clinical Attachment Loss. Hematologic data were collected from a blood test performed on the same day as the periodontal examination. Thirty-seven patients (26 males), aged between 15 and 80 years (mean age 41.7 ± 18.31) were evaluated. Correlation between platelet count and BOP (p > 0.05), or between platelet count and GI (p > 0.05), were both weak (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.171 and r = -0.003, respectively) and not statistically significant. It can be concluded from the preliminary results that the low platelet count was not correlated with the higher prevalence of gingival and periodontal bleeding in patients with leukemia.
The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of routine use of dental prophylaxis prior to visual inspection, in order to diagnose caries, by dentists with different lapses of time after graduating time. One hundred and fifty one Brazilian dentists were interviewed in 3 Brazilian cities to determine if they usually remove dental plaque prior to visual inspection for caries diagnosis. The dentists were stratified according to year of graduation. The association between the lapse of time after graduating and the practice of routinely removing dental plaque before clinical examination was tested using the chi-square test with a significance level of 5%. Only 28.5% of the dentists reported that they usually remove dental plaque prior to clinical examination. The dentists who graduated in the last 15 years presented the lowest percentages of plaque removal prior to clinical examination (15.1%), whereas the more experienced dentists reported that they perform prophylaxis more frequently. Of the professionals who graduated from 1960-1975, 23.9% reported that they performed dental plaque removal prior to diagnosis, whereas the figure for those graduating from 1976-1990 was 46.2%. Most of the dentists interviewed reported that they did not remove dental plaque prior to performing visual diagnosis of caries.
When dealing with patients with periodontal disease of variable severities, dentists must often choose between treating and restoring the involved tooth or indicating its extraction. Different criteria have been adopted in this decision-making process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the criteria adopted by dentists to indicate the extraction of teeth with periodontitis. Dentists were interviewed at their private practices in three cities of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The evaluated criteria included severity of attachment loss, tooth mobility, furcation involvement, prosthetic planning, periodontal-endodontic lesion, possible systemic involvement due to the presence of periodontitis, referral to a periodontist for evaluation, radiographic bone loss greater than 50%, presence of extensive caries, socio-economic and cultural status of the patient, among others. The most often adopted criteria to indicate the extraction of periodontally affected teeth were the presence of mobility (37.5%), severity of attachment loss (24.3%) and radiographic bone loss greater than 50% (21.2%). The results of the present study demonstrated the difficulties faced by dentists to indicate the extraction of teeth with severe attachment loss, in addition to the establishment of an adequate prognosis. Aspects associated with the past disease were still the most often reported to indicate the extraction of teeth for periodontal reasons.