The present paper aims to increase the knowledge on the sand fly fauna in the cerrado areas of Maranhão state in urban, rural and forest environments. The research was carried out from October 2007 to September 2008, between 18:00h and 06:00h, in the municipality of Chapadinha, northeast Maranhão. For insect sampling, CDC light traps were set up in peridomicile and domicile areas of urban and rural zones as well as in Cerrado and Gallery forests. The total of 1,401 specimens belonging to 17 species were sampled, all within the genus Lutzomyia. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (52.5%), Lu. evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes) (18.3%), Lu. whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) (12.1%), Lu. lenti (Mangabeira) (4.7%) and Lu. termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva) (4.0%) were the most frequently collected. From an epidemiological viewpoint, five from all of the collected species are vectors of leishmaniasis: Lu. longipalpis, Lu. whitmani, Lu. flaviscutellata (Mangabeira), Lu. gomezi (Nitzulescu) and Lu. chagasi (Costa Lima). Lutzomyia chagasi was registered for the first time in Maranhão state and Lu. saulensis (Floch & Abonnenc), Lu. monstruosa (Floch & Abonnenc) and Lu. gomezi were found for the first time in the eastern part of the state, since they had been reported only in the Amazonian region of Maranhão. Regarding to the studied environments, the urban chicken house had the highest number of specimens collected (801), while the Gallery Forest was the most diverse (15 species). This study demonstrates that the northeast cerrado exhibits a mixed sand fly fauna characterized by an extremely important species vectors assortment involved in the epidemiological cycle of leishmaniasis in Maranhão state.