ABSTRACT Bovine meat and bone meal (MBM) has been used as a low-cost protein source in corn- and soybean meal-based poultry diets. However, to date, no studies investigating the effect of the dietary inclusion of MBM on the performance of Japanese quails and on egg production costs were found in literature. In this study, 600 Japanese quails in lay were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of six treatments (replacement levels of soybean meal by MBM:0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) with five replicates of 20 birds each to investigate if MBM is a viable alternative to maintain or to improve the live and economic performances of these birds. Treatments consisted of a control diet, based on corn and soybean meal, with no inclusion of MBM, and diets formulated with increasing levels (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) of MBM inclusion at the expense of soybean meal. The studied parameters were evaluated in four periods of 28 days each. Live performance parameters (egg weight, g; average egg production, %; egg weight, g; feed intake, g; feed conversion ratio per egg mass, kg/kg and per dozen eggs, dz/kg; and livability, %); egg quality parameters (proportion of egg components, yolk, albumen, eggshell %; egg specific weight, g/cm3); and economic parameter (bio-economic nutritional index) were determined. Only egg weight, egg specific weight, and eggshell percentage were affected (p<0.05) by the treatments. Our results show that inclusion of bovine meat and bone meal can be added to the diet of Japanese quails in lay, causing no performance losses and promoting feed cost savings up to 5.24%.
Background: The equations predicting maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max or peak) presently in use in cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) softwares in Brazil have not been adequately validated. These equations are very important for the diagnostic capacity of this method. Objective: Build and validate a Brazilian Equation (BE) for prediction of VO2peak in comparison to the equation cited by Jones (JE) and the Wasserman algorithm (WA). Methods: Treadmill evaluation was performed on 3119 individuals with CPET (breath by breath). The construction group (CG) of the equation consisted of 2495 healthy participants. The other 624 individuals were allocated to the external validation group (EVG). At the BE (derived from a multivariate regression model), age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and physical activity level were considered. The same equation was also tested in the EVG. Dispersion graphs and Bland-Altman analyses were built. Results: In the CG, the mean age was 42.6 years, 51.5% were male, the average BMI was 27.2, and the physical activity distribution level was: 51.3% sedentary, 44.4% active and 4.3% athletes. An optimal correlation between the BE and the CPET measured VO2peak was observed (0.807). On the other hand, difference came up between the average VO2peak expected by the JE and WA and the CPET measured VO2peak, as well as the one gotten from the BE (p = 0.001). Conclusion: BE presents VO2peak values close to those directly measured by CPET, while Jones and Wasserman differ significantly from the real VO2peak.
Fundamento: As equações que predizem o consumo máximo de oxigênio (leia-se VO2máx ou pico) utilizadas em softwares de teste cardiopulmonar de exercício (TCPE) no Brasil não foram validadas e têm importância fundamental no algoritmo diagnóstico desse exame. Objetivo: Construir e validar uma equação derivada de população brasileira (EB) para predição do VO2, comparando-a com a equação citada por Jones (EJ) e com o algoritmo de Wasserman (AW). Métodos: Foram avaliados, pelo TCPE, 3.119 indivíduos aparentemente saudáveis. Destes, 2.495 pertenceram ao grupo de construção (GC) e 624 foram alocados de forma aleatória no grupo de validação (GV). Na EB consideraram-se idade, gênero, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e nível de atividade física, sendo a mesma posteriormente testada no GV. Resultados: No GC, a idade média foi de 42,6 anos, 51,5% eram homens, o IMC médio foi de 27,2, sendo 51,3% sedentários, 44,4% ativos e 4,3% atletas. No GV não houve diferença entre o VO2pico médio medido pelo TCPE (29,92 mL.kg−1.min−1) e pela EB (29,80 mL.kg1.min−1/p = 0,571), sendo observada ótima correlação (0,898). O AW e a EJ tiveram valores médios diferentes do VO2pico medido (p <0,001). O percentual do erro total foi de 18%, 26% e 41% para EB, AW e EJ, respectivamente. A distribuição dos resíduos foi predominantemente negativa no AW (70,67%) e na EJ (87,66%), evidenciando que ambas superestimam os valores médios do VO2pico. Conclusão: A EB apresenta valores de VO2pico muito próximos do valor medido através do TCPE, enquanto o AW e a EJ diferem significativamente do VO2pico real.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of annato (Bixa orellana L.) and turmeric (Turmeric longa L.) in layer feeds on live performance, egg quality, and yolk pigmentation and depigmentation time. A number of 144 layers were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design, with four treatments with six replicates of six birds each. In the basal diet, sorghum replaced 50% of corn, and was supplemented or not with natural pigments to composse the following treatments: Control (0% pigments), AS (2.0% annato), TR (2% turmeric) and ASTR (1% annato and 1% turmeric). Egg weight (g), egg production (%), egg mass (%), feed intake (g), feed conversion ratio (kg/dz and kg/kg) and mortality were evaluated. The following egg quality parameters were evaluated: specific gravity (SG); yolk, albumen, and eggshell percentages, and yolk color. The treatments did not influence layer performance or egg quality parameters, except for egg production and yolk color. The dietary inclusion of 1% turmeric root and 1% annato seed promoted higher egg production. Diets containing annato resulted in more saturated, more intense, and redder yolk color, with increasing pigment deposition after day 10, with maximum values obtained on day 28. Dried turmeric root did not promote good yolk pigmentation, resulting in higher presence of white in the yolk, which was stabilized on day 4. Three days after pigments were withdrawn from the feeds, yolk color faded in the treatments with annato inclusion.
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of dietary calcium levels and the replacement of calcium sources with different particle size compositions on the performance and egg quality of brown layers in their second egg production cycle. A randomized block experimental design was applied with 12 treatments in a 3x4 factorial arrangement: three calcium levels (2.6, 3.2, 3.8 %) and four combinations of calcium sources (1- 100% fine limestone (FL), 2- 50% FL + 50% coarse limestone (CL), 3- 50% FL and 50% oyster shell (OS), 4- 50% FL and 25% CL+ 25 %OS), with six replicates of eight birds each. Calcium sources were analyzed for geometric mean diameter (GMD) and in-vitro solubility. The following performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated: egg weight (EW, g), egg production (% Eggs), egg mass (EM %), feed intake (FI g), feed conversion ratio (FCR kg/dz and FCR kg/kg), mortality (% Mort.), specific egg gravity (SG), percentages of yolk (Y%), albumen (Alb%) and eggshell (ES%), eggshell thickness (EST), eggshell breaking strength (BS), eggshell weight per surface area (EWSA), Haugh unit (HU), yolk index (YI) and yolk color. Performance and internal egg quality were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05). Blocks had a significant effect on (p<0.05) FI and FCR (kg/dz and kg/kg). Treatments significantly influenced external egg quality, which improved as dietary calcium levels increases and when up to 50% fine limestone was replaced by combinations of coarse limestone with oyster shell.
In this article I discuss the profile of the first prisoners at the Casa de Prisão com Trabalho. A Penitentiary founded in 1861 in the city of Salvador, Bahia. I begin with a discussion of other prisons of Salvador in order to understand the role of the Casa de Prisão in the dinamics of the local prisional sistem from 1860 until 1865. Then variables such as sex, color, age, ocupation, kind of crime and sentences are analised. I finish with fragments in the history of their lives.
Dans cet article, je présente mon étude sur le profil des premiers priosonniers qui ont occupé la Casa de Prisão com Trabalho (Prison avec Travail), nom donné à la première maison d'arrêt de Bahia, fondée en 1861 dans la ville de Salvador. D'abord, je présente un bilan à propos de la population carcérale de Salvador en essayant de bien cerner le rôle joué par la Casa de Prisão dans la dynamique de l'appareil pénitentiaire de la ville pendant les années 1860-1865. Ensuite, j'analyse des questions concernant le profil des prisonniers (sexe, couleur, âge et profession), la nature des crimes et les sentences. À la fin de l'article, j'étudie des fragments d'histoires de vie de ces détenus.
Neste artigo apresento um estudo sobre o perfil dos primeiros presos que ocuparam a Casa de Prisão com Trabalho, nome que recebeu a primeira penitenciária da Bahia, inaugurada no ano de 1861 na cidade de Salvador. Apresento um levantamento da população carcerária da cidade de Salvador visando situar o papel da Casa de Prisão na dinâmica do aparelho prisional da cidade no período de 1860 a 1865. Em seguida, variáveis como sexo, cor, idade, profissão, natureza do crime e sentença dos presos são analisadas. Finalizo com fragmentos de histórias de suas vidas.