Abstract Since, there is no study reporting the mechanism of azole resistance among yeasts isolated from aquatic environments; the present study aims to investigate the occurrence of antifungal resistance among yeasts isolated from an aquatic environment, and assess the efflux-pump activity of the azole-resistant strains to better understand the mechanism of resistance for this group of drugs. For this purpose, monthly water and sediment samples were collected from Catú Lake, Ceará, Brazil, from March 2011 to February 2012. The obtained yeasts were identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Of the 46 isolates, 37 were Candida spp., 4 were Trichosporon asahii, 3 were Cryptococcus laurentii, 1 Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and 1 was Kodamaea ohmeri. These isolates were subjected to broth microdilution assay with amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole, according to the methodology standardized by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole were 0.03125–2 µg/mL, 0.0625 to ≥16 µg/mL, and 0.5 to ≥64 µg/mL, respectively, and 13 resistant azole-resistant Candida isolates were detected. A reduction in the azole MICs leading to the phenotypical reversal of the azole resistance was observed upon addition of efflux-pump inhibitors. These findings suggest that the azole resistance among environmental Candida spp. is most likely associated with the overexpression of efflux-pumps.
Due to the current predatory exploitation and consequent extinction of native medicinal plants around the world, strategies have been proposed aiming at the sustainable use of these resources. Accordingly, this study aims at verifying the differences in tannin compounds content in the bark of eleven species with high use value (UV) and also relating the amounts of tannins with their therapeutic indications. To quantify the total phenolic content in the samples the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used, and for total tannins chemical casein precipitation was applied. The amount of tannins ranged intra-specifically and the greater variation was found for Anadenanthera colubrina(angico) that displayed between 157.57 and 107.39 mg/g. The lowest variation occurred in Lafoensia replicata(mangabeira) with values ranging between 76.55 and 68.96 mg/g. There were significant differences between several of the eleven species and according to the simple regression analysis, the quantities of tannins found failed to justify their UV. Thus, it was not possible to establish whether the amount of total tannins influenced to a greater or lesser degree in the accumulation of knowledge. Moreover, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between the amount of total tannins and local botanical knowledge expressed by the UV.
The curaua fiber is one of the strongest lignocellulosic fibers and is currently being considered as reinforcement of polymer composites for industrial applications such as automobile interior components and bicycle helmets. The tensile strength of the curaua fiber was found to display an inverse variation with its corresponding equivalent diameter. Since the stiffness of the fiber is also important for its use as composite reinforcement, the present work investigated the dependence of the elastic modulus of curaua fibers with the associated diameters. The results confirmed the existence of an inverse dependence between the elastic modulus and the fiber diameter. In principle, this could allow a selection of stiffer curaua fibers to be used as reinforcement in polymer composites with comparatively higher elastic modulus. A possible mechanism for this inverse dependence is discussed following structural differences between thicker and thinner fibers.
By means of dimensional selection of natural lignocellulosic fibers, based on precise diameter measurements, it was recently possible to obtain fibers with relatively higher tensile strength. The present article overviews works on the statistical evaluation, through the Weibull analysis, of the ultimate tensile stress of eight lignocellulosic fibers: sisal, ramie, curaua, jute, bamboo, coir, piassava and buriti. It is shown that, for all of these fibers, the tensile strength holds an inverse relationship with the fiber diameter. Statistically this relationship conforms to a hyperbolic type of analytical equation, which discloses the possibility of unusually high strength fibers to be selected in association with very small diameters. A structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy offered an explanation to the strengthening mechanisms responsible for the superior performance of these dimensionally selected fibers.
Este trabalho tem por objetivo a avaliar a influência da incorporação de finos de brita na microestrutura e nas propriedades de queima de uma massa cerâmica argilosa. As propriedades avaliadas foram: retração linear, absorção de água e tensão de ruptura à flexão. Foram preparadas composições com 0% e 25% em peso de finos de brita para a obtenção de corpos-de-prova por extrusão para queima em temperaturas de 800 a 1200ºC. A microestrutura das cerâmicas queimadas foi avaliada por microscopia ótica. Os resultados mostraram que a incorporação de finos de brita é benéfica para a produção de cerâmica vermelha possibilitando redução da retração linear e da absorção de água, sem muito efeito na resistência mecânica.
This work has as its objective to evaluate the incorporation of stone fines in the microstructure and fired properties of a clayey ceramic. The evaluated properties were: linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural strength. Compositions were prepared with 0 and 25 wt.% of stone fines to obtain specimens by extrusion that were fired at temperatures varying from 800 to 1200ºC. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by optical microscopy. The results showed that the incorporation of stone fines is beneficial to the production of red ceramic by decreasing both the linear shrinkage and the water absorption, without much effect on the mechanical strength.
Fibers stripped of from the bamboo culm by longitudinal cutting are being considered as reinforcement of polymer composites owing to environmental benefits related to their biodegradable and renewable characteristics. The manual cutting process allows bamboo fibers with different diameters to be extracted from the culm. Since a lignocellulosic fiber usually presents tensile strength dependence with its diameter, this possibility was investigated on bamboo fibers by means of the Weibull statistical analysis. It was found that the smaller the fiber diameter, the greater the tensile strength. Fracture observation of ruptured bamboo fibers by scanning electron microscopy, identified possible mechanisms associated with this inverse strength/diameter correlation.
The jute fiber is one of the strongest lignocellulosic fibers with applications ranging from simple items such as fabrics and ropes to engineering composites for automobile parts and building panels. Like other lignocellulosic fibers, the jute may have an inverse strength dependence with its diameter. In principle, thinner jute fiber could be comparatively stronger and consequently more effective as a composite reinforcement. Therefore, an attempt to correlate the jute fiber strength obtained in tensile test with its corresponding diameter, precisely measured by means of a profile projector, was carried out. A Weibull statistical analysis confirmed the inverse dependence between the jute fiber tensile strength and the corresponding fiber diameter. Scanning electron microscopy observation of the fracture of selected ruptured fiber revealed possible mechanisms that could justify the strength/diameter inverse dependence.
Environmental aspects and economical advantages are motivating the use of natural fiber as reinforcement of polymer composites in substitution for synthetic fiber composites such as fiber glass. In particular, the sisal fiber is one of the most investigated and being used in engineering systems. By contrast to synthetic fibers, natural fibers have the disadvantage of being heterogeneous in their dimensions specially the diameter. In several natural fibers it has been found that the smaller the diameter, the stronger is the fiber. In this work a Weibull analysis of sisal fibers tensile strength was performed to find a correlation with the diameter. The results revealed an inverse dependence of the tensile strength with the diameter. The observation of ruptured fibers by scanning electron microscopy suggested possible mechanisms that justify a hyperbolic correlation.
The fibers extracted from the piassava palm tree, scientifically known as Attalea funifera, are among the stiffest lignocellulosic fibers being considered for polymer composite reinforcement. Characterization of piassava composites have been carried out for different polymeric matrices and mechanical tests. In this work the tensile properties of DGEBA/TETA epoxy matrix composites reinforced with up to 30% in volume of continuous and aligned piassava fibers were evaluated. Tensile specimens post-cured at 60ºC for 4 hours were room temperature tested and the corresponding fracture analyzed by scanning electrons microscopy. The results showed a decrease in both the tensile strength and the elastic modulus of the composites up to 30% with an increase at 40% of piassava fibers to values above those of the pure epoxy. The fracture analysis revealed a weak fiber/matrix interface, which could account for the comparative low performance of these composite in tensile tests up to 30% of volume fraction. The relatively large amount of stronger piassava fibers accounts for the better performance of the composite with 40% in volume fraction.
The current interest for natural fibers as an environmentally correct composite reinforcement has motivated the investigation of new possibilities. For instance, the fibers extracted from the petiole of the buriti palm tree were recently found to have adequate mechanical properties to reinforce polymer composites. Therefore, the present work evaluates the tensile properties of polyester composites incorporated with thinner buriti petiole fibers for improved mechanical performance. Composites with up to 40% in volume of buriti petiole fibers embedded in orthophtalic polyester matrix were post-cured and then ruptured in tension. Fracture surfaces were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A marked increase in the tensile strength was found with the amount of buriti fibers. The fracture analysis revealed aspects of the bonding condition at the fiber/matrix interface, which could be associated with the composite performance.
The fiber extracted from the husk of a coconut fruit, known as coir fiber, has been extensively investigated as a second phase incorporation into polymer composites. The moderate strength of the coir fiber usually does not represent reinforcement to relatively strong thermoset matrices such as polyester, epoxy and phenolic. However, a selection of thinner coir fibers and a post cure treatment of the composite could improve its mechanical performance. Therefore, this work investigated the tensile properties of post-cured polyester matrix composites incorporated with the thinnest coir fiber. Tensile specimens with up to 40% in volume of long and aligned coir fibers were tested and their fracture analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A relatively improvement was found in the tensile properties for the amount of 40% of coir fiber. These results were compared with similar composites that were bend-tested. The fracture analysis showed a comparatively better fiber/matrix adhesion.
Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a microestrutura de queima de cerâmicas argilosas utilizadas para fabricação de telhas por meio de ensaios de difração de raios-X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e porosimetria ao mercúrio. Corpos-de-prova de quatro massas cerâmicas foram preparados por prensagem uniaxial e queimados a 975°C. Em seguida, foram submetidos a ensaio mecânico para determinação da tensão de ruptura à flexão. Os resultados indicaram que a massa cerâmica caulinítica proveniente de Campos dos Goytacazes, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, apresentou uma microestrutura com maior volume de poros em comparação com outras três massas cerâmicas. Entretanto, o menor teor de quartzo e o menor tamanho de poros foram predominantes para que a massa de Campos dos Goytacazes apresentasse uma melhor performance mecânica.
This work has as its objective to evaluate the microstructure of fired clayey bodies used to the fabrication of roofing tiles by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and mercury porosimetry analysis. Specimens of four roofing tiles bodies were prepared by uniaxial pressure and fired at 975°C. The mechanical test was accomplished to determine the flexural rupture strength. The results indicated that the kaolinitic ceramic body from Campos of Goytacazes, State of Rio de Janeiro, presents a microstructure with higher volume of pores. However, the lower amount of free quartz and pore size were predominant for the better mechanical performance of the body from Campos dos Goytacazes.
A review on the fundamentals and technological advances in the incorporation of industrial solid wastes into red ceramics was updated since 1997, when the first overview on this subject was published by Dondi, Marsigli and Fabbri. Other works conducted before this period, but not covered by that overview were also reviewed. Modifications were introduced in the original categories of wastes to permit a wider variety to be considered. In addition to fuel and fluxing wastes, a category of property affecting wastes substituted the originally proposed fly-ash and plasticity reducing/ plastifying wastes categories. In order to be more comprehensive, this updated review considered industrially relevant subdivisions within each category. Accordingly, fuel wastes encompass: oily residues, blast furnace sludge, and paper industry residues. Fluxing wastes encompass: rejects from ornamental rocks, glassy residues and fluxing ashes. Property affecting wastes encompass: grog, water treatment sludge, steel-refining sludge/slag, non-fluxing ashes, mineral processing tails, galvanic sludge, spent catalyst reject, textile slurry, foundry reject sands, tannery sludge and construction and demolition leftovers.
Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar os aspectos microestruturais de cerâmica vermelha incorporada com lodo de estação de tratamento de água - ETA queimada a 700°C. O lodo foi coletado na etapa de filtração da estação de tratamento de água do município de Itaperuna, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As composições foram preparadas com percentuais de lodo de ETA de 0% e 10% em peso e incorporadas na massa de cerâmica vermelha. A microestrutura das cerâmicas foi analisada por difração de raios-X e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, acoplada com sistema de espectroscopia por dispersão de energia (EDS). Os resultados indicaram que a incorporação de lodo de filtro de ETA altera a fases de queima e aumenta os defeitos microestruturais da cerâmica.
This work had as its objective to investigate the microstructural aspects of red ceramic incorporated with sludge from water treatment plant fired at 700°C. The sludge was collected at the filter stage in the water treatment plant of the county of Itaperuna, Rio de Janeiro State. The microstructure of the ceramics was analyzed with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy, EDS, facility. The results indicated that the incorporation of filter sludge change the fired phases and increases the microstructural defects of the ceramic.
Carbonado é a denominação de um diamante policristalino opaco e de cor escura, naturalmente encontrado no Brasil e na República Central Africana. Artificialmente é possível produzir-se um diamante sintético policristalino do tipo carbonado. Devido a sua microestrutura constituída de muitos grãos, este diamante é mais duro e mais tenaz que os comuns. Assim, pode ser usado com vantagens em brocas para perfuração de petróleo e outras ferramentas resistentes à abrasão. O objetivo deste trabalho foi, pela primeira vez, produzir o carbonado no Brasil e apresentar suas características microestruturais. Este carbonado foi sintetizado a altas pressões e temperaturas utilizando grafite brasileiro no setor de Materiais Superduros da UENF. As características avaliadas o colocam como um material compatível para utilização em ferramentas de corte e perfuração.
Carbonado is the name given to a polycrystalline, opaque and dark color diamond, which is naturally found in Brazil and in the Central Republic of Africa. Artificially, it is possible to produce a carbonado type synthetic polycrystalline diamond. Owing to its microstructure, which is constituted by many grains, this diamond is harder and tougher than the common ones. Therefore, it can be used with advantage in petroleum perforation drill and other wear resistant tools. The objective of this work was, for the first time, to produce a synthetic carbonado in Brazil and to present its microstructural characteristics. This carbonado was synthesized at high pressure and high temperature, using Brazilian graphite, at the sector of Superhard Materials of the State University of the Northern Rio de Janeiro, UENF. The evaluated characteristics indicated that this carbonado is a proper material for cutting and drilling tools.