ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare the color and oxidative stability of light (LM) and dark (DM) muscles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) stored at 4 °C for eight days. Five different trials of LM and DM samples were analyzed for instrumental color attributes (lightness, redness and yellowness), including the surface color stability through ratio of reflectance at 630/580 nm (R630/580), myoglobin concentration, total lipid content, fatty acid profile, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), pH, lipid oxidation and protein oxidation. Results of the present study indicated that DM of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) present lower oxidative and color stability during refrigerated storage than LM.
RESUMO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a estabilidade de cor e oxidativa de músculos claros (LM) e escuros (DM) de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) armazenados a 4° C por oito dias. Cinco repetições diferentes de amostras de LM e DM foram analisadas quanto aos atributos instrumentais de cor (luminosidade, teor de vermelho e teor de amarelo), incluindo a estabilidade de cor na superfície através da razão de refletâncias nos comprimentos de onda 630 e 580 nm (R630/580), concentração de mioglobina, lipídios totais, perfil de ácidos graxos, atividade de redução da metamioglobina (MRA), pH, oxidação lipídica e oxidação proteica. Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que músculos escuros (DM) de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) apresentam menor estabilidade oxidativa e de cor durante o armazenamento refrigerado, quando comparados aos músculos claros (LM).
The guidelines of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) state that the municipal authorities are responsible for the vaccination of the population. The present study examined the types of immunobiologicals, amounts and reasons for their destruction and disposal by the Municipal Health Secretariat in the city of Bauru, São Paulo state, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. This study comprises a descriptive, exploratory and retrospective work that employed search of bibliographic data, collection of secondary data from forms of immunobiologicals disposal and interview of the agent responsible for the disposal of these products in the municipality. It was observed that the total numbers of unused vaccines in 2008 and 2009 were similar (4523 and 4395, respectively), being the most discarded: the diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) vaccine in 2008 and DTP, BCG and influenza in 2009. It was found that the amount of discarded vaccines could be reduced since the reasons for that were predictable. Moreover, the current study emphasized that although there is a municipal regulation for the disposal of immunobiologicals, the city still requires a better structure to handle such problem.