ABSTRACT Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The Brazilian Society of Hepatology (SBH) published in 2015 its first recommendations about the management of HCC. Since then, new data have emerged in the literature, prompting the governing board of SBH to sponsor a single-topic meeting in August 2018 in São Paulo. All the invited experts were asked to make a systematic review of the literature reviewing the management of HCC in subjects with cirrhosis. After the meeting, all panelists gathered together for the discussion of the topics and the elaboration of updated recommendations. The text was subsequently submitted for suggestions and approval of all members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology through its homepage. The present manuscript is the final version of the reviewed manuscript containing the recommendations of SBH.
RESUMO O carcinoma hepatocelular (CHC) é uma das principais causas de mortalidade relacionada a câncer no Brasil e no mundo. A Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia (SBH) publicou em 2015 suas primeiras recomendações sobre a abordagem do CHC. Desde então, novas evidências sobre o diagnóstico e tratamento do CHC foram relatadas na literatura médica, levando a diretoria da SBH a promover uma reunião monotemática sobre câncer primário de fígado em agosto de 2018 com o intuito de atualizar as recomendações sobre o manejo da neoplasia. Um grupo de experts foi convidado para realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura e apresentar uma atualização baseada em evidências científicas visando que pudesse nortear a prática clínica multidisciplinar do CHC. O texto resultante foi submetido a avaliação e aprovação de todos membros da SBH através de sua homepage. O documento atual é a versão final que contêm as recomendações atualizadas e revisadas da SBH.
OBJECTIVES: Women with invasive placentation (IP) are at high risk of life-threatening hemorrhage. In the last two decades, less invasive surgical approaches combined with endovascular procedures have proven to be safe. Most case series describe the use of temporary balloon occlusion and embolization, either combined or not. Concerning hemorrhage rates, each separate interventional approach performs better than surgery alone does, yet it is not clear whether the combination of multiple interventional techniques can be beneficial and promote a lower incidence of intrapartum bleeding. We aim to evaluate whether combining temporary balloon occlusion of the internal iliac artery and uterine artery embolization promotes better hemorrhage control than do other individual interventional approaches reported in the scientific literature in the context of cesarean birth followed by hysterectomy in patients with IP. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with confirmed IP who underwent temporary balloon occlusion and embolization of the internal iliac arteries followed by puerperal hysterectomy. We compared patient results to data extracted from a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of the current literature that focused on interventional procedures in patients with IP. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients underwent the procedure during the study period in our institution. The mean volume of packed red blood cells and the estimated blood loss were 487.9 mL and 1193 mL, respectively. Four patients experienced complications that were attributed to the endovascular procedure. CONCLUSION: The combination of temporary balloon occlusion and uterine artery embolization does not seem to promote better hemorrhage control than each procedure performed individually does.
ABSTRACT Mechanical thrombectomy using stent retrievers is the standard treatment for acute ischemic stroke that results from large vessel occlusions. The direct aspiration first pass technique (ADAPT) has been proposed as an efficient, fast, and cost-effective thrombectomy strategy. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of ADAPT. Methods Recanalization was assessed using the modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) score. Neurological outcomes were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scale. Results Fifteen patients were evaluated. The mTICI score was 2b-3 in 80%, and it was 3 in 60% of patients. No intracranial hemorrhage was seen. At three months, modified Rankin Scale scores ≤ 2 were observed in 60% of patients and the mortality rate was 13.3%. Conclusions The ADAPT appears to be a safe, effective, and fast recanalization strategy for treatment of acute ischemic stroke resulting from large vessel occlusions.
RESUMO A trombectomia mecânica com stent retrievers é o tratamento padrão ouro do acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico agudo (AVCi) por oclusão de grandes artérias. A técnica de aspiração primária (ADAPT) tem sido proposta como uma estratégia de trombectomia rápida e com boa custo-efetividade. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a segurança e eficácia da técnica ADAPT. Métodos A recanalização foi avaliada utilizando a escala mTICI. Os desfechos neurológicos foram avaliados utilizando as escalas do NIHSS e mRS. Resultados Quinze pacientes foram avaliados. Foram obtidas taxas de mTICI = 2b-3 em 80% e TICI = 3 em 60% dos pacientes. Não ocorreram hemorragias intracranianas. Em 3 meses as taxas de mRS≤2 e mortalidade foram respectivamente 60% e 13.3%. Conclusão A técnica ADAPT parece ser uma estratégia de recanalização rápida, segura e efetiva para o tratamento do AVC por oclusão de grandes artérias.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical response and success rate after periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome and to report the safety of endovascular treatment and its rate of complications. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome in our department from January 2012 to November 2015. Data were analyzed based on patient background, imaging findings, embolized veins, rate of complications, and clinical response as indicated by the visual analog pain scale. RESULTS: We performed periuterine varices embolization in 22 patients during the study, four of which required a second embolization. Seventeen patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the first embolization and three patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the second embolization. Minor complications were observed in our patients, such as postural hypotension, postoperative pain, and venous perforation during the procedure, without clinical repercussion. CONCLUSION: Periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome appears to be an effective and safe technique.
OBJECTIVE: Transarterial chemoembolization is the treatment of choice for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there are no clear data supporting transarterial chemoembolization vs. transarterial embolization or regarding the best chemotherapeutic agent, which may suggest a preponderant role of ischemia over chemotherapeutic action. This study sought to evaluate the radiological response and outcome of transarterial chemoembolization modified by n-butyl cyanoacrylate addition compared to conventional transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review identified forty-seven patients who underwent modified chemoembolization and thirty-three who underwent conventional chemoembolization between June 2006 and December 2011. The radiological response was reassessed using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. The sustained complete response, time to progression and overall survival rates were also analyzed. RESULTS: Complete response rates were significantly higher in patients who had undergone modified chemoembolization compared to those who had undergone conventional treatment (61.7% and 24.3%, respectively; p<0.001). The rate of sustained complete response was significantly higher in the modified chemoembolization group compared to the conventional chemoembolization group (median of 236 and 37 days, respectively; p<0.001). Time to progression was significantly higher in the modified chemoembolization group compared to the conventional chemoembolization group (median of 424 and 201 days, respectively; p=0.042). Overall survival rates revealed no difference between patients who received modified chemoembolization and conventional chemoembolization (median of 483 and 399 days, respectively; p=0.316). CONCLUSION: Transarterial chemoembolization modified by n-butyl cyanoacrylate addition was superior to conventional transarterial chemoembolization in terms of the radiological response in the first imaging control. Although the sustained complete response and time to progression rates were higher for the modified chemoembolization group, no differences in overall survival rates were observed.
OBJECTIVES: Carotid artery stenting is an emerging revascularization alternative to carotid endarterectomy. However, guidelines have recommended carotid artery stenting only if the rate of periprocedural stroke or death is < 6% among symptomatic patients and < 3% among asymptomatic patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare clinical outcomes of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who had undergone carotid artery stenting as a first-intention treatment. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent carotid artery stenting by our interventional neuroradiology team was conducted. Patients were divided into two groups: symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The primary endpoints were ipsilateral ischemic stroke, ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 30 days. The secondary endpoints included ipsilateral ischemic stroke, ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage, ipsilateral transient ischemic attack and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events between the 1- and 12-month follow-ups. RESULTS: A total of 200 consecutive patients were evaluated. The primary endpoints obtained in the symptomatic vs. asymptomatic groups were ipsilateral stroke (2.4% vs. 2.7%, p = 1.00), ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage (0.8% vs. 0.0%, p = 1.00) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (4.7% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.71). The secondary endpoints obtained in the symptomatic vs. asymptomatic groups were ipsilateral ischemic stroke (0.0% vs. 0.0%), ipsilateral parenchymal hemorrhage (0.0% vs. 0.0%), ipsilateral TIA (0.0% vs. 0.0%, p = 1.00) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (11.2% vs. 4.1%, p = 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, carotid artery stenting was similarly safe and effective when performed as a first-intention treatment in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The study results comply with the safety requirements from current recommendations to perform carotid artery stenting as an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy.
Objective: To evaluate musculoskeletal involvement in paracoccidioidomycosis at computed tomography. Materials and Methods: Development of a retrospective study based on a review of radiologic and pathologic reports in the institution database. Patients with histopathologically confirmed musculoskeletal paracoccidioidomycosis and submitted to computed tomography were included in the present study. The imaging findings were consensually described by two radiologists. In order to avoid bias in the analysis, one patient with uncountable bone lesions was excluded from the study. Results: A total of seven patients were included in the present study. A total of 18 bone lesions were counted. The study group consisted of 7 patients. A total number of 18 bone lesions were counted. Osteoarticular lesions were the first manifestation of the disease in four patients (57.14%). Bone lesions were multiple in 42.85% of patients. Appendicular and axial skeleton were affected in 85.71% and 42.85% of cases, respectively. Bone involvement was characterized by well-demarcated osteolytic lesions. Marginal osteosclerosis was identified in 72.22% of the lesions, while lamellar periosteal reaction and soft tissue component were present in 5.55% of them. One patient showed multiple small lesions with bone sequestra. Conclusion: Paracoccidioidomycosis can be included in the differential diagnosis of either single or multiple osteolytic lesions in young patients even in the absence of a previous diagnosis of pulmonary or visceral paracoccidioidomycosis
Objetivo: Avaliar o acometimento musculoesquelético da paracoccidioidomicose nas imagens de tomografia computadorizada. Materiais e Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo desenvolvido a partir de revisão de laudos radiológicos e patológicos do banco de dados da instituição. Foram selecionados pacientes com paracoccidioidomicose osteoarticular submetidos a tomografia computadorizada. Todos os casos considerados tiveram confirmação histopatológica da doença. Os achados de imagem foram descritos em consenso por dois radiologistas. Um paciente com incontáveis lesões ósseas foi excluído da contabilização das anormalidades com a finalidade de evitar viés. Resultados: Foram incluídos 7 pacientes no presente estudo. Um total de 18 lesões ósseas foi contabilizado. Em quatro casos (57,14%) a lesão osteoarticular foi a primeira manifestação da doença. As lesões ósseas eram múltiplas em 42,85%. Os esqueletos apendicular e axial foram afetados em 85,71% e 42,85% dos pacientes, respectivamente. O envolvimento ósseo caracterizou-se por lesões osteolíticas bem delimitadas. Identificou-se osteoesclerose marginal em 72,22% das lesões contabilizadas. Reação periosteal lamelar e componente de partes moles estiveram presentes em 5,55% das anormalidades. Um paciente exibiu múltiplas lesões com sequestros ósseos. Conclusão: A paracoccidioidomicose pode ser incluída no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões osteolíticas, únicas ou múltiplas, em pacientes jovens, mesmo sem diagnóstico prévio de paracoccidioidomicose pulmonar ou visceral.
Arteriovenous fistulae of the cavernous sinus are rare and difficult to diagnose. They are classified into dural cavernous sinus fistulae or direct carotid-cavernous fistulae. Despite the similarity of symptoms between both types, a precise diagnosis is essential since the treatment is specific for each type of fistula. Imaging findings are remarkably similar in both dural cavernous sinus fistulae and carotid-cavernous fistulae, but it is possible to differentiate one type from the other. Amongst the available imaging methods (Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography), angiography is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae. The present essay is aimed at didactically presenting the classification and imaging findings of cavernous sinus arteriovenous fistulae.
As fístulas arteriovenosas da região do seio cavernoso são lesões raras e difíceis de diagnosticar. Elas são classificadas em fístulas durais do seio cavernoso e fístulas carótido-cavernosas diretas. Apesar de apresentarem sintomas semelhantes, o diagnóstico preciso é importante, já que o tratamento é específico para cada uma delas. As alterações encontradas nos exames de imagem são muito semelhantes, tanto nas fístulas durais do seio cavernoso quanto nas fístulas carótido-cavernosas, contudo, é possível diferenciá-las. Dentre os exames de imagem disponíveis (ultrassonografia de órbita com Doppler, tomografia computadorizada, ressonância magnética e angiografia com subtração digital), a angiografia é considerada padrão ouro para o diagnóstico e classificação das fístulas arteriovenosas da região do seio cavernoso. O objetivo deste ensaio é mostrar de modo didático a classificação e o aspecto por imagem das fístulas arteriovenosas do seio cavernoso.
OBJECTIVE: Large vessel occlusion in acute ischemic stroke is associated with low recanalization rates under intravenous thrombolysis. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the Solitaire AB stent in treating acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke were prospectively evaluated. The neurological outcomes were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the modified Rankin Scale. Time was recorded from the symptom onset to the recanalization and procedure time. Recanalization was assessed using the thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were evaluated. The mean patient age was 65, and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores ranged from 7 to 28 (average 17±6.36) at presentation. The vessel occlusions occurred in the middle cerebral artery (61.9%), distal internal carotid artery (14.3%), tandem carotid occlusion (14.3%), and basilarartery (9.5%). Primary thrombectomy, rescue treatment and a bridging approach represented 66.6%, 28.6%, and 4.8% of the performed procedures, respectively. The mean time from symptom onset to recanalization was 356.5±107.8 minutes (range, 80-586 minutes). The mean procedure time was 60.4±58.8 minutes (range, 14-240 minutes). The overall recanalization rate (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction scores of 3 or 2b) was 90.4%, and the symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rate was 14.2%. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores at discharge ranged from 0 to 25 (average 6.9±7). At three months, 61.9% of the patients had a modified Rankin Scale score of 0 to 2, with an overall mortality rate of 9.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-arterial thrombectomy with the Solitaire AB device appears to be safe and effective. Large randomized trials are necessary to confirm the benefits of this approach in acute ischemic stroke.
Peripheral vascular malformations represent a spectrum of lesions that appear through the lifetime and can be found in the whole body. Such lesions are uncommon and are frequently confounded with infantile hemangioma, a common benign neoplastic lesion. In the presence of such lesions, the correlation between the clinical and radiological findings is extremely important to achieve a correct diagnosis, which will guide the best therapeutic approach. The most recent classifications for peripheral vascular malformations are based on the blood flow (low or high) and on the main vascular components (arterial, capillary, lymphatic or venous). Peripheral vascular malformations represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, and complementary methods such as computed tomography, Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, in association with clinical findings can provide information regarding blood flow characteristics and lesions extent. Arteriography and venography confirm the diagnosis, evaluate the lesions extent and guide the therapeutic decision making. Generally, low flow vascular malformations are percutaneously treated with sclerosing agents injection, while in high flow lesions the approach is endovascular, with permanent liquid or solid embolization agents.
As malformações vasculares periféricas compreendem um espectro de lesões que se tornam aparentes no decorrer da vida e podem ser encontradas em praticamente todo o corpo. São pouco comuns e frequentemente confundidas com o hemangioma infantil. Estas doenças são completamente distintas tanto em relação à história clínica como ao prognóstico e às formas de tratamento. Nestas lesões, a história evolutiva e as características do exame físico são de extrema importância para o adequado diagnóstico clinicorradiológico, que guiará a melhor alternativa terapêutica. As classificações mais recentes dividem as malformações vasculares periféricas levando em consideração o fluxo sanguíneo (alto e baixo) e os componentes vasculares envolvidos (arteriais, capilares, linfáticos e venosos). As malformações vasculares periféricas representam um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico, e exames complementares como tomografia computadorizada, ultrassonografia com Doppler e ressonância magnética, em conjunto com a história clínica, podem trazer informações quanto às características de fluxo e à extensão das lesões. Arteriografia e flebografia confirmam o diagnóstico, avaliam a sua extensão e orientam a decisão terapêutica. Malformações de baixo fluxo geralmente são tratadas por abordagem percutânea e injeção de agente esclerosante, enquanto para as malformações de alto fluxo o acesso é endovascular com uso de agentes embolizantes permanentes líquidos ou sólidos.