Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the polymerization properties of bulk-fill materials (low and high-viscosity) by using high-intensity continuous light and intermittent photo-activation in terms of polymerization shrinkage stress and degree of conversion (DC). The following Bulk-fill and Conventional nanofilled resin composites were evaluated: Filtek Z350XT Flow (3M/ESPE), SureFil SDR Flow (Dentsply), Filtek Bulk Fill Flow (3M/ESPE), Filtek Z350XT (3M/ESPE) and Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior (3M/ESPE). A LED device (DB 685, Dabi Atlante) was used for both protocols: continuous uniform and intermittent photo-activation (light-on and light-off cycles) with identical radiant exposure (14 J/cm2). The polymerization shrinkage stress (n=6) was evaluated by inserting a single increment of 12 mm3 between two stainless steel plates (6×2 mm) adapted to a Universal Testing Machine (UTM), at different times. Measurements were recorded after photo-activation. The degree of conversion was evaluated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscope (FTIR) with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory (n=5). Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD (α=0.05) tests. Bulk Fill Posterior presented higher shrinkage stress values when photo-activated with the intermittent technique (p<0.05). The intermittent photo-activation increased the degree of conversion for the low-viscosity bulk-fills (p<0.05). Therefore, the use of modulated photo-activation (intermittent) must be indicated with caution since its use can influence the shrinkage stress and degree of conversion of composites, which varies according to the resin formulations.
Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de polimerização de materiais bulk-fill (baixa e alta viscosidade) utilizando luz contínua de alta intensidade e fotoativação intermitente em relação ao estresse de contração de polimerização e grau de conversão (DC). As seguintes resinas compostas Bulk-fill e nanohíbridas convencionais foram avaliadas: Filtek Z350XT Flow (3M/ESPE), SureFil SDR Flow (Dentsply), Filtek Bulk Fill Flow (3M/ESPE), Filtek Z350XT (3M/ESPE) e Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior (3M/ESPE). Um dispositivo de LED (DB 685, Dabi Atlante) foi utilizado nos dois protocolos: fotoativação contínua e intermitente contínua (ciclos de liga e desliga) com exposição idêntica (14 J/cm2). A tensão de contração de polimerização (n=6) foi avaliada através da inserção de um incremento único de 12 mm3 entre duas placas de aço inoxidável (6×2 mm) adaptadas a uma Máquina de Ensaio Universal (UTM), em tempos diferentes. As medições foram registradas após a fotoativação. O grau de conversão foi avaliado por FTIR-ATR (n=5). Os dados foram analisados pelos testes ANOVA a três fatores e teste de Tukey (α=0,05). A resina Bulk Fill Posterior apresentou maiores valores de tensão de contração quando fotoativadas com a técnica intermitente (p<0,05). A fotoativação intermitente aumentou o grau de conversão nas resinas bulk-fill de baixa viscosidade (p<0,05). Portanto, o uso de fotoativação modulada (intermitente) deve ser indicado com cautela, uma vez que seu uso pode influenciar a tensão de contração e o grau de conversão dos compósitos, o que varia de acordo com as formulações da resina.
Abstract Extensive restorations in posterior teeth always bring doubts to the clinicians regarding the best protocol, mainly when structures of reinforcement were lost. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effect of beveling on the fracture resistance and pattern of class II (MOD) restored teeth. Methodology Ninety human premolars were randomly assigned into 9 groups: CTR (control/sound); NC (cavity preparation, non-restored); RU (restored, unbeveled); RTB (restored, entire angle beveling); RPB (restored, partial/occlusal beveling); EC (endodontic access/EA, non-restored); EU (EA, unbeveled); ETB (EA, entire angle beveling); EPB (EA, partial/occlusal beveling). Teeth were restored with Esthet X resin composite and stored in distilled water for 24 h before the inclusion in PVC cylinders. The axial loading tests were performed with 500 kgF at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until fracture of the specimens. Fracture resistance and pattern were accessed and data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD test (α=0.05). Results Mean (±SD) failure loads ranged from 136.56 (11.62) to 174.04 (43.5) kgF in the groups tested without endodontic access. For endodontically accessed teeth, fracture resistance ranged from 95.54 (13.05) to 126.51 (19.88) kgF. Beveling of the cavosurface angle promoted the highest fracture resistance values (p<0.05) and prevented catastrophic fractures. Conclusions Cavosurface angle beveling is capable of improving fracture resistance and pattern for both endodonticaly accessed and non-accessed teeth.
Abstract Bulk-fill composites were introduced in dentistry to accelerate clinical procedures while providing adequate outcomes. Concerns regarding the use of bigger composite increments rely on the polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress, which may generate gaps on the adhesive interface and result in a reduced success rate. Objective: To evaluate the polymerization shrinkage stress of different bulk-fill resin composites and their elastic modulus. Materials and Methods: Fourteen specimens were made for each of the nine different resin composites (seven with 12 mm3 and seven with 24 mm3): Surefill SDR flow (SDR), X-tra Base (XB), Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable (FBF), Filtek Z350XT Flow (Z3F); Tetric Evo Ceram Bulk Fill (TBF), X-tra Fil (XF), Filtek Bulk Fill (FBP), Admira Xtra Fusion (ADM) and Filtek Z350 XT (Z3XT). Linear shrinkage stress was evaluated for 300 s with the aid of a linear shrinkage device adapted to a Universal Testing Machine. For each composite group, seven additional specimens (2x2x25 mm) were made and Young's modulus was evaluated with a 3-point bending device adapted in a Universal Testing Machine with 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed and 50 KgF loading cell. Results: For 12 mm3 specimens, three-way ANOVA showed that only SDR and TBF generated lower stress after 20 s. Considering 300 s, TBF, SDR, and XF generated the lowest stress, followed by ADM, FBP, XB, and FBF, which were similar to Z3XT. Z3F generated the highest stress values for all time points. Considering 24 mm3 specimens after 20 s, all bulk fill composites generated lower stress than Z3XT, except XB. After 300 s, SDR, FBP, and ADM generated the lowest stress, followed by TBF and XF. For elastic modulus, one-way ANOVA showed that FBF, SDR, Z3F, and ADM presented the lowest values, followed by XB and TBF. FBP, Z3XT, and XF presented the highest elastic modulus among the evaluated composites. Conclusions: Bulk-fill resin composites presented equal to lower shrinkage stress generation when compared to conventional composites, especially when bigger increments were evaluated. Bulk-fill composites showed a wide range of elastic modulus values, but usually similar to “regular” composites.
Abstract We assessed the effect of a new coating material based on resin-modified glass-ionomer with calcium (Ca) in inhibiting the demineralization of underlying and adjacent areas surrounding caries-like lesions in enamel. The measures used were surface hardness (SH) and cross-sectional hardness (CSH). Thirty-six bovine enamel specimens (3 × 6 × 2 mm) were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 12): No treatment (NT); resin-modified glass-ionomer with Ca (Clinpro XT Varnish, 3M ESPE) (CL), and fluoride varnish (Duraphat, Colgate) (DU). The specimens were subjected to alternated immersions in demineralizing (6 h) and remineralizing solutions (18 h) for 7 days. SH measurements were conducted at standard distances of 150, 300, and 450 µm from the treatment area. CSH evaluated the mean hardness profile over the depth of the enamel surface and at standard distances from the materials. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis was conducted to evaluate the demineralization bands created on the sublayer by % of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and fluoride (F). Ca/P weight ratio was also calculated. Based on SH and CSH measurements, there was no difference between groups at the distances 150 µm (p = 0.882), 300 µm (p = 0.995), and 450 µm (p = 0.998). Up to 50 µm depth (at 150 µm from the treatment area), CL showed better performance than DU ( p< 0.05). NT presented higher loss of Ca and P than CL and DU (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the % of F ion among the three groups. The new coating material was similar to F varnish in attenuating enamel demineralization.
Abstract The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the temperature variation inside the pulp chamber during light-activation of the adhesive and resin composite layers with different light sources. Cavities measuring 8x10 mm were prepared on the buccal surface of bovine incisors, leaving a remaining dentin thickness of 1 mm. Specimens were placed in a 37±1 °C water bath to standardize the temperature. The temperature in the pulp chamber was measured every 10 s during 40 s of light activation of the adhesive system (SBMP-3M/ESPE) and in the three consecutive 1-mm-thick layers of resin composite (Z250-3M/ESPE). Three light source devices were evaluated: Elipar 2500 (QTH), LD Max (LED low irradiance) and VALO (LED high irradiance). The results were submitted to one-way ANOVA with repeated measures and Tukey's test, both with p<0.001. The exothermic reaction warming was observed in the Z250 increments, but not in the SBMP. The high irradiance LED showed a higher temperature average (42.7±1.56 °C), followed by the quartz-tungsten-halogen light (40.6±0.67 °C) and the lower irradiance LED (37.8±0.12 °C). Higher temperature increases were observed with the adhesive and the first resin composite increment light-activation, regardless of the employed light source. From the second increment of Z250, the restorative material acted as a dispersive structure of heat, reducing temperature increases. Regardless the light source and restorative step, the temperature increased with the irradiation time. It may be concluded that the light source, irradiation time and resin composite thickness interfered in the temperature variation inside the pulp chamber.
Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo in vitro foi avaliar a variação de temperatura dentro da câmara pulpar durante a fotoativação de um sistema adesivo e de camadas de resina composta com diferentes fontes de luz. Cavidades com dimensões de 8x10 mm foram preparadas na superfície vestibular de incisivos bovinos deixando uma espessura de dentina remanescente de 1 mm. Os espécimes foram inseridos em uma cuba térmica com água à temperatura de 37±1 °C. A temperatura no interior da câmara foi medida a cada 10 s durante 40 s de ativação de luz do sistema adesivo (SBMP; 3M/ESPE) e três camadas de 1 mm de espessura consecutivas de resina composta (Z250; 3M/ESPE ). Três fonte de luz foram avaliadas: Elipar 2500 (QTH), LD Max (LED de baixa densidade de potência), VALO (LED alta densidade de potência). Os resultados foram submetidos a ANOVA de medidas repetidas a um critério e teste de Tukey (ambos com p<0,01). O aquecimento da reação exotérmica foi observado nos incrementos de resina composta, mas não no sistema adesivo. O LED de alta densidade de potência mostrou uma média de temperatura mais elevada (42,7±1,56 °C) seguido pela luz halogéna (40,6±0,67 °C) e o LED de menor densidade de potência (37,8±0,12 °C). Maiores aumentos de temperatura foram observados na fotoativação do sistema adesivo e do primeiro incremento de resina composta, independente da fonte de luz utilizada. A partir do segundo incremento de resina composta, o material restaurador agiu como estrutura dispersiva de calor, reduzindo o aumento de temperatura. Independente da fonte de luz e da etapa restauradora, a temperatura aumentou com o tempo de irradiação. Pode-se concluir que a fonte de luz, o tempo de irradiação, a espessura resina composta interferiram na variação de temperatura no interior da câmara pulpar.
Abstract This in vitro study evaluated the effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium ascorbate on the microtensile bond strength of an etch-and-rinse system to bleached bovine enamel. Sixty bovine enamel blocks (4x4 mm) were flattened and randomly allocated into 5 groups: G1 (negative control): without treatment; G2 (positive control): bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP); G3: bleached and stored for 7 days in artificial saliva before restorative procedures; G4: bleached and treated with 10% sodium bicarbonate solution for 5 min; G5: bleached and treated with 10% sodium ascorbate hydrogel for 15 min. HP gel was applied twice (20 min each, except in G1) and the adhesive restorations were performed. After 24 h, the specimens were sectioned into sticks and submitted to microtensile bond strength testing with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min (n=12). As a complementary visual observation, the enamel surfaces of the G1 and G2 specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (p<0.05). The means (standard deviation) were: G1: 24.22±7.74; G2: 18.29±5.88; G3: 40.88±7.95; G4: 19.95±5.67 and G5: 24.43±6.43. Adhesive failures were predominant in all groups. The comparison between the treatments indicates that waiting 7 days after bleaching is still the most effective approach. When this waiting period is not possible, application of sodium ascorbate or sodium bicarbonate seems to be a good alternative. Therefore, the practicality of obtaining sodium bicarbonate in the bleaching kits and its higher stability enables its clinical use.
Resumo Este estudo in vitro avaliou o efeito do bicarbonato de sódio e do ascorbato de sódio na resistência de união de um sistema adesivo convencional unido ao esmalte bovino clareado. Sessenta blocos de esmalte bovino (4x4 mm) foram planificados e distribuídos aleatoriamente em 5 grupos: G1: (controle negativo); G2 (controle positivo): clareamento com peróxido de hidrogênio 35% (HP); G3: clareamento com HP seguido de armazenamento por 7 dias em saliva artificial antes do procedimento restaurador; G4: clareamento com HP seguido de tratamento com a solução de bicarbonato de sódio 10% por 5 min; G5: clareamento com HP seguido de tratamento com hidrogel de ascorbato de sódio 10% por 15 min. O HP foi aplicado duas vezes (20 min cada, com exceção do grupo G1) e então as restaurações adesivas foram realizadas. Após 24 h, os espécimes foram seccionados em palitos e submetidos ao teste de resistência de união a uma velocidade de 0,5 mm/min (n=12). As superfícies de esmalte de G1 e G2 foram avaliadas com microscopia eletrônica de varredura para fins de análise visual complementar. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA a um critério (p<0,05). As medias (desvio-padrão) foram: G1: 24,22±7,74; G2: 18,29±5,88; G3: 40,88±7,95; G4: 19,95±5,67 e G5: 24,43±6,43. Falhas adesivas foram predominantes em todos os grupos. A comparação entre os diferentes tratamentos indica que esperar 7 dias após o clareamento é ainda a abordagem mais eficaz. Nos casos em que este período de espera não é possível, a aplicação do ascorbato de sódio e do bicarbonate de sódio parecem ser boas alternativas. Entretanto, a praticidade na obtenção da solução de bicarbonato de sódio nos kits de clareamento e sua maior estabilidade favorecem o seu uso clínico.
ABSTRACT The use of light sources in the bleaching process reduces the time required and promotes satisfactory results. However, these light sources can cause an increase in the pulp temperature. Objective The purpose of the present study was to measure the increase in intrapulpal temperature induced by different light-activated bleaching procedures with and without the use of a bleaching gel. Material and Methods A human maxillary central incisor was sectioned 2 mm below the cementoenamel junction. A K-type thermocouple probe was introduced into the pulp chamber. A 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel was applied to the vestibular tooth surface. The light units used were a conventional halogen, a hybrid light (only LED and LED/Laser), a high intensity LED, and a green LED light. Temperature increase values were compared by two-way ANOVA and Tukey´s tests (p<0.05). Results There were statistically significant differences in temperature increases between the different light sources used and between the same light sources with and without the use of a bleaching gel. The presence of a bleaching gel generated an increase in intra-pulpal temperature in groups activated with halogen light, hybrid light, and high intensity LED. Compared to the other light sources, the conventional halogen lamp applied over the bleaching gel induced a signiﬁcant increase in temperature (3.83±0.41°C). The green LED unit with and without gel application did not produce any significant intrapulpal temperature variations. Conclusion In the present study, the conventional halogen lamp caused the highest increase in intrapulpal temperature, and the green LED caused the least. There was an increase in temperature with all lights tested and the maximum temperature remained below the critical level (5.5°C). The addition of a bleaching gel led to a higher increase in intrapulpal temperatures.
ABSTRACT Development of new materials for tooth bleaching justifies the need for studies to evaluate the changes in the enamel surface caused by different bleaching protocols. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the bovine dental enamel wear in function of different bleaching gel protocols, acid etching and pH variation. Material and Methods Sixty fragments of bovine teeth were cut, obtaining a control and test areas. In the test area, one half received etching followed by a bleaching gel application, and the other half, only the bleaching gel. The fragments were randomly divided into six groups (n=10), each one received one bleaching session with five hydrogen peroxide gel applications of 8 min, activated with hybrid light, diode laser/blue LED (HL) or diode laser/violet LED (VHL) (experimental): Control (C); 35% Total Blanc Office (TBO35HL); 35% Lase Peroxide Sensy (LPS35HL); 25% Lase Peroxide Sensy II (LPS25HL); 15% Lase Peroxide Lite (LPL15HL); and 10% hydrogen peroxide (experimental) (EXP10VHL). pH values were determined by a pHmeter at the initial and final time periods. Specimens were stored, subjected to simulated brushing cycles, and the superficial wear was determined (μm). ANOVA and Tukey´s tests were applied (α=0.05). Results The pH showed a slight decrease, except for Group LPL15HL. Group LPS25HL showed the highest degree of wear, with and without etching. Conclusion There was a decrease from the initial to the final pH. Different bleaching gels were able to increase the surface wear values after simulated brushing. Acid etching before bleaching increased surface wear values in all groups.
Increased surface roughness and wear of resin cements may cause failure of indirect restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the surface roughness change and the vertical wear of four resin cements subjected to mechanical toothbrushing abrasion. Ten rectangular specimens (15 × 5 × 4 mm) were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions for each group (n = 10): Nexus 3, Kerr (NX3); RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE (ARC); RelyX U100, 3M ESPE (U100); and Variolink II, Ivoclar/Vivadent (VL2). Initial roughness (Ra, µm) was obtained through 5 readings with a roughness meter. Specimens were then subjected to toothbrushing abrasion (100,000 cycles), and further evaluation was conducted for final roughness. Vertical wear (µm) was quantified by 3 readings of the real profile between control and brushed surfaces. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, followed by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). The Pearson correlation test was performed between the surface roughness change and wear (p < 0.05). The mean values of initial/final roughness (Ra, µm)/wear (µm) were as follows: NX3 (0.078/0.127/23.175); ARC (0.086/0.246/20.263); U100 (0.296/0.589/16.952); and VL2 (0.313/0.512/22.876). Toothbrushing abrasion increased surface roughness and wear of all resin cements tested, although no correlation was found between those variables. Vertical wear was similar among groups; however, it was considered high and may lead to gap formation in indirect restorations.
There is no consensus about the waiting time necessary for the patient to start consuming beverages containing colorants again after bleaching. Objective: To evaluate the influence of beverages with coloring agents on bleached bovine incisors considering the time elapsed after bleaching. Materials and methods: Sixty bovine incisors were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide for in-office use (Whiteness HP Max) and divided into 10 groups. The color was evaluated with a spectrophotometer (Spectro Shade MICRO) before and after bleaching, employing the CIE-Lab system. After bleaching, the teeth were exposed for 5 min to coffee or cola-based soft drink (CBSD) at different periods after bleaching: 10 min, 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Color (∆E) and lightness (∆L) variations were obtained from the CIE-Lab coordinates. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (p<0.05). Results: Significant differences were observed between groups for both the ∆L and ∆E values (p<0.001). All specimens presented a decrease in brightness (negative ∆L). The highest ∆E values were observed for teeth stained with a CBSD at 10 min and 1 h (4.12 and 4.16, respectively). Teeth pigmented with coffee presented ∆E values below 3.3 units for all evaluation times. Conclusion: The exposure to coffee after bleaching causes less color changes than the exposure to a CBSD regardless of the time after bleaching.
The aim of the study was to determine if the increase in radiopacity provided by bismuth oxide is related to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cement. Calcium silicate cement (CSC) was mixed with 0%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 50% of bismuth oxide (BO), determined by weight. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was the control group. The radiopacity test was performed according to ISO 6876/2001. The color was evaluated using the CIE system. The assessments were performed after 24 hours, 7 and 30 days of setting time, using a spectrophotometer to obtain the ΔE, Δa, Δb and ΔL values. The statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn and ANOVA/Tukey tests (p < 0.05). The cements in which bismuth oxide was added showed radiopacity corresponding to the ISO recommendations ( > 3 mm equivalent of Al). The MTA group was statistically similar to the CSC / 30% BO group (p > 0.05). In regard to color, the increase of bismuth oxide resulted in a decrease in the ΔE value of the calcium silicate cement. The CSC group presented statistically higher ΔE values than the CSC / 50% BO group (p < 0.05). The comparison between 24 hours and 7 days showed higher ΔE for the MTA group, with statistical differences for the CSC / 15% BO and CSC / 50% BO groups (p < 0.05). After 30 days, CSC showed statistically higher ΔE values than CSC / 30% BO and CSC / 50% BO (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the increase in radiopacity provided by bismuth oxide has no relation to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cements.
The concern with the polymerization shrinkage of restorative resin composites also applies to resin cements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of volume and polymerization mode on forces generated during polymerization shrinkage (FGPS) of resin cements. Two light-cured resin cements - Variolink II (VL; Ivoclar Vivadent) and Nexus 3 (NX; Kerr) - and two self-cured resin cements - Multilink (ML; Ivoclar Vivadent) and Cement Post (CP; Angelus) - were inserted between two rectangular steel bases (6x2 mm) with distance set at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mm, establishing a variation of volume. These steel bases were attached to a universal test machine with 50 kg load cell and forces (N) were registered for 10 min. Values of maximum forces generated by each material were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test for individual comparisons (α=0.05). VL, NX and CP developed increasing FGPS as the volume of material increased, while ML presented the opposite behavior. It may be concluded that higher volume increases FGPS even with a concomitant decrease of C-factor, unless the resin cements present lower force generation rates as a function of time in combination with a low C-factor, resulting in stress relief and consequently lower values of FGPS.
Preocupação com a contração de polimerização de resinas compostas restauradoras também tem sido associada aos cimentos resinosos. O objetivo deste artigo foi avaliar a influência do volume e do modo de polimerização sobre as forças geradas durante a contração de polimerização (FGPS) de cimentos resinosos. Dois cimentos de ativação dual: Variolink II (VL - Ivoclar Vivadent) e Nexus 3 (NX - Kerr) e dois de ativação química: Multilink (ML - Ivoclar Vivadent) e Cement Post (CP - Angelus) foram inseridos entre as duas bases de aço retangulares (6x2 mm) com a distância ajustada em 0,1, 0,3 e 0,5 mm, estabelecendo uma variação no volume. Estas bases de aço foram fixadas a uma máquina de teste universal (Emic DL 500, com célula de carga de 50 kg) e as forças (N) foram registradas por 10 min. Os valores máximos de tensões geradas por cada material foram submetidas à ANOVA a dois critérios, seguido do teste de Tukey (p<0,05) para comparações individuais. VL, NX e CP desenvolveram maiores FGPS quando o volume de material aumentou, enquanto ML apresentou o comportamento inverso. Maiores volumes aumentam as FGPS mesmo com redução concomitante do Fator-C, a menos que o cimento resinoso apresente uma baixa taxa de geração de força em função do tempo associado a um baixo Fator-C, o que resulta em alívio das tensões e consequentemente menores valores de FGPS.
Objective: To evaluate the in vitro changes on the enamel surface after a micro-abrasion treatment promoted by different products. Material and Methods: Fifty (50) fragments of bovine enamel (15 mm × 5 mm) were randomly assigned to five groups (n=10) according to the product utilized: G1 (control)= silicone polisher (TDV), G2= 37% phosphoric acid (3M/ESPE) + pumice stone (SS White), G3= Micropol (DMC Equipment), G4= Opalustre (Ultradent) and G5= Whiteness RM (FGM Dental Products). Roughness and wear were the responsible variables used to analyze these surfaces in four stages: baseline, 60 s and 120 s after the micro-abrasion and after polishing, using a Hommel Tester T1000 device. After the tests, a normal distribution of data was verified, with repeated ANOVA analyses (p≤0.05) which were used to compare each product in different stages. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied for individual comparisons between the products in each stage (p≤0.05). Results: Means and standard deviations of roughness and wear (µm) after all the promoted stages were: G1=7.26(1.81)/13.16(2.67), G2=2.02(0.62)/37.44(3.33), G3=1.81(0.91)/34.93(6.92), G4=1.92(0.29)/38.42(0.65) and G5=1.98(0.53)/33.45(2.66). At 60 seconds, all products tended to produce less surface roughness with a variable gradual decrease over time. After polishing, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups, except for G1. Independent of the product utilized, the enamel wear occurred after the micro-abrasion. Conclusions: In this in vitro study, enamel micro-abrasion presented itself as a conservative approach, regardless of the type of the paste compound utilized. These products promoted minor roughness alterations and minimal wear. The use of phosphoric acid and pumice stone showed similar results to commercial products for the micro-abrasion with regard to the surface roughness and wear.
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the influence of the cavity configuration factor ("C-Factor") and light activation technique on polymerization contraction forces of a Bis-GMA-based composite resin (Charisma, Heraeus Kulzer). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three different pairs of steel moving bases were connected to a universal testing machine (emic DL 500): groups A and B - 2x2 mm (CF=0.33), groups C and D - 3x2 mm (CF=0.66), groups e and F - 6x2 mm (CF=1.5). After adjustment of the height between the pair of bases so that the resin had a volume of 12 mm³ in all groups, the material was inserted and polymerized by two different methods: pulse delay (100 mW/cm² for 5 s, 40 s interval, 600 mW/cm² for 20 s) and continuous pulse (600 mW/cm² for 20 s). Each configuration was light cured with both techniques. Tensions generated during polymerization were recorded by 120 s. The values were expressed in curves (Force(N) x Time(s)) and averages compared by statistical analysis (ANOVA and Tukey's test, p<0.05). RESULTS: For the 2x2 and 3x2 bases, with a reduced C-Factor, significant differences were found between the light curing methods. For 6x2 base, with high C-Factor, the light curing method did not influence the contraction forces of the composite resin. CONCLUSIONS: Pulse delay technique can determine less stress on tooth/restoration interface of adhesive restorations only when a reduced C-Factor is present.
OBJECTIVES: Nanofilled composite resins are claimed to provide superior mechanical properties compared with microhybrid resins. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare nanofilled with microhybrid composite resins. The null hypothesis was that the size and the distribution of fillers do not influence the mechanical properties of surface roughness and wear after simulated toothbrushing test. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten rectangular specimens (15 mm x 5 mm x 4 mm) of Filtek Z250 (FZ2), Admira (A), TPH3 (T),Esthet-X (EX), Estelite Sigma (ES), Concept Advanced (C), Grandio (G) and Filtek Z350 (F) were prepared according to manufacturer's instructions. Half of each top surface was protected with nail polish as control surface (not brushed) while the other half was assessed with five random readings using a roughness tester (Ra). Following, the specimens were abraded by simulated toothbrushing with soft toothbrushes and slurry comprised of 2:1 water and dentifrice (w/w). 100,000 strokes were performed and the brushed surfaces were reanalyzed. Nail polish layers were removed from the specimens so that the roughness (Ra) and the wear could be assessed with three random readings (µm). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's multiple-comparison test (α=0.05). RESULTS: Overall outcomes indicated that composite resins showed a significant increase in roughness after simulated toothbrushing, except for Grandio, which presented a smoother surface. Generally, wear ofnanofilled resins was significantly lower compared with microhybrid resins. CONCLUSIONS: As restorative materials suffer alterations under mechanical challenges, such as toothbrushing, the use of nanofilled materials seem to be more resistant than microhybrid composite resins, being less prone to be rougher and worn.