ABSTRACT Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for one of the most common human viral infections. An estimated 257 million people are living with chronic HBV infection worldwide, and mortality has reached 900,000 deaths in recent years. In 2001, the World Health Organization reported a prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection in Iran between 2-7%. Objective: To assess the effect of the national HBV mass vaccination program after 25 years. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in vaccinated and unvaccinated people according to the year of birth. Blood samples were obtained from each enrolled person and data about demographic variables, and medical and vaccination history were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Persons were considered uninfected if they were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HBc. Also, Vaccine effectiveness was measured by calculating the risk of disease among vaccinated and unvaccinated persons and defining the percentage risk reduction of infection in the vaccinated group. Results: A total of 2720 persons were interviewed. The rate of HBV breakthrough infection among the vaccinated group was significantly lower than in unvaccinated group. One hundred ninety-four cases with positive HBV markers of infection were identified. The risk ratio of HBV infection was 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54-0.94 (vaccinated/unvaccinated). The estimated vaccination effectiveness against Hepatitis B infection was 29% (95% CI: 6%-46%). Conclusions: Iran has successfully combined hepatitis B vaccination into regular immunization programs. The WHO goal of reducing HBsAg prevalence to an equivalent of 1% by 2020 has been reached. With respect to vaccination effectiveness and low prevalence of the disease in the country, catch-up hepatitis B vaccination programs for adolescents can guarantee the immunity of the population.
A new chemiluminescence (CL) method has been proposed for the simple determination of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid, ASA). The method is based on the enhancement effect of ASA in the CL reaction of tris(1,10 phenanthroline)ruthenium(II), Ru(phen)32+, with cerium(IV) (CeIV) in acidic medium. Under optimum conditions, the CL intensity was proportional to the concentration of the drug in solution over the range 0.72-72.00 µg mL-1 ASA. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 0.45 µg mL-1. In the method proposed, limit of detection was at least 30 times lower than the therapeutic concentration of ASA. The percent of relative standard deviation for determination of 10 replicates at level of 28.8 µg mL-1 of ASA was 5.8% and the minimum sampling rate was 30 samples per hour. Effects of some ingredients were investigated and the proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of ASA in pharmaceutical formulations and plasma samples. A time resolve CL approach was used to reduce the effect of interferences from cysteine and ascorbic acid in plasma samples. The possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed.
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were recently proposed as carriers for various pharmaceutical and cosmetic actives. These lipid nanoparticles can act as moisturizers and physical sunscreens on their own. Therefore, the full potential of these carriers has yet to be determined. The present study was aimed to determine and compare moisturizing and UV-protecting effects of different solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) prepared by different solid lipids including Glyceryl monostearate (GMS), Precirol® (P) and cetyl palmitate (CP) as carrier systems of moisturizers and sunscreens. The influence of the size and matrix crystallinity of the solid lipids on the occlusive factor, skin hydration and UV-protection were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo methods. The SLN were prepared by high-shear homogenization and ultrasound methods. Size, zeta potential and morphological characteristics of the samples were assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermotropic properties with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique. Results of the assessments showed that SLN-CP significantly increases skin hydration and UV-protection, compared to SLN-GMS and SLN-P. It was demonstrated that the size of SLN, crystallinity index of solid lipid in SLN and probably other mechanisms besides the occlusive factor can influence skin hydration and UV-protection indices. Furthermore, findings of the assessments demonstrated significant difference between in vitro and in vivo assessments regarding occlusive factor and moisturizing effects. Findings of the present study indicate that the SLN-CP could be a promising carrier for sunscreens and moisturizers.
Nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas (NLS) foram, recentemente, propostas como carreadores de vários ativos cosméticos e farmacêuticos. Essas nanopartículas lipídicas podem atuar como hidratantes e protetores solares físicos por si só. Assim sendo, determinou-se o potencial desses carreadores. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram determinar e comparar os efeitos hidratantes e protetores contra UV das diferentes partículas lipídicas sólidas (NLS) preparadas com diferentes lipídios sólidos, incluindo o monoestearato de gligerila (MSG), Precirol® (P) e palmitato de cetila (PC) como sistemas carreadores de hidratantes e de protetores solares. A influência do tamanho e da cristalinidade da matriz dos lipídios sólidos no fator oclusivo, na hidratação da pele e na proteção ao UV foi avaliada por métodos in vitro e in vivo. As NLS foram preparadas por homogeneização por alto corte e métodos de ultrassom. Tamanho, potencial zeta e características morfológicas das amostras foram determinados por microscopia de transmissão eletrônica (MTE) e as propriedades termotrópicas, com diferentes técnicas de calorimetria diferencial de varredura (CDV). Os resultados mostraram que NLS-PC aumenta significativamente a hidratação da pele e a proteção ao UV, comparativamente à NLS-MSG e à NLS-P. Demonstrou-se que o tamanho da NLS, índice de cristalinidade do lipídio sólido na NLS e, provavelmente, outros mecanismos além do fator oclusivo podem influenciar a hidratação da pele e os índices de proteção ao UV. Além disso, os resultados mostraram diferença significativa entre as avaliações in vitro e in vivo com relação ao fator oclusivo e aos efeitos hidratantes. Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que NLS-PC poderia ser um carreador promissor para protetores solares e hidratantes.