ABSTRACT Immunological and clinical findings suggestive of some immune dysfunction have been reported among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children and adolescents. Whether these defects are persistent or transitory is still unknown. HEU pediatric population at birth, 12 months, 6-12 years were evaluated in comparison to healthy age-matched HIV-unexposed controls. Plasma levels of LPS, sCD14, cytokines, lymphocyte immunophenotyping and T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) were assessed. HEU and controls had similar LPS levels, which remained low from birth to 6-12 years; for plasma sCD14, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF and MCP-1, which increased from birth to 12 months and then decreased at 6-12 years; and for TREC/106 PBMC at birth in HEU and controls. By contrast, plasma MIP-1β levels were lower in HEU than in controls (p=0.009) at 12 months, and IL-4 levels were higher in HEU than controls (p=0.04) at 6-12 years. Immune activation was higher in HEU at 12 months and at 6-12 years than controls based on frequencies of CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+T cells (p=0.05) and of CD38+HLA-DR+CD4+T cells (p=0.006). Resting memory and activated mature B cells increased from birth to 6-12 years in both groups. The development of the immune system in vertically HEU individuals is comparable to the general population in most parameters, but subtle or transient differences exist. Their role in influencing clinical incidences in HEU is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: To assess possible factors associated with the loss of antibodies to hepatitis A 7 years after the primary immunization in children of HIV-infected mothers and the response to revaccination in patients seronegative for hepatitis A. METHODS: Quantification of HAV antibodies by electrochemiluminescence was performed in 39 adolescents followed up at the Pediatric Aids Clinic of Federal University of São Paulo (Unifesp): 29 HIV-infected (HIV group) (median age: 12.8 years) and 10 HIV-exposed but non-infected (ENI group) (median age: 13.4 years). All of them received two doses of HAV vaccine (Havrix(r)) in 2002. RESULTS: The median age at primary immunization (PI) was 5.4 years for HIV group and 6.5 years for ENI group. All children, from both groups, had antibodies to HAV >20 mIU/mL after PI. Seven years later, the ENI group showed a median concentration of antibodies = 253.5 mIU/mL, while the HIV group = 113.0 mIU/mL (Mann-Whitney test, p=0.085). All ENI group and 23/29 (79.3%) from HIV group mantained HAV antibodies 7 years after PI. The levels of hepatitis A antibodies in the primary vaccination were the only factor independently associated with maintaining these antibodies for 7 years. The group that lost HAV seropositivity was revaccinated and 83.3% (5/6) responded with antibodies >20 mUI/mL. CONCLUSIONS: The antibodies levels acquired in the primary vaccination in the HIV group were the main factor associated with antibodies loss after HAV immunization.
OBJETIVO: Avaliar possíveis fatores associados à perda de anticorpos para o vírus da hepatite A (VHA) sete anos após a imunização primária e resposta à revacinação em crianças nascidas de mães soropositivas para HIV nos pacientes soronegativos para Hepatite A. MÉTODOS: Quantificação de anticorpos para o VHA por meio da eletroquimioluminescência foi feita em 39 adolescentes acompanhados no Ambulatório de Aids Pediátrica da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp): 29 infectados pelo HIV e 10 expostos e não infectados (ENI) pelo HIV, com mediana de idade, respectivamente, de 12,8 e 13,4 anos. Todos receberam duas doses da vacina VHA (Havrix(r)) em 2002. RESULTADOS: A mediana da idade na época da imunização primária (IP) era de 5,4 anos para o grupo HIV e 6,5 anos para o grupo ENI. As crianças dos dois grupos apresentaram anticorpos para o VHA > 20 mUI/mL após a IP. Sete anos após, o grupo ENI apresentava mediana de anticorpos = 253,5 mUI/mL e o grupo HIV = 113,0 mUI/mL (Mann-Whitney; p=0,085). Todo grupo ENI e 23/29 (79,3%) do grupo HIV mantiveram anticorpos contra o VHA sete anos após IP. Os níveis de anticorpos para hepatite A na primovacinação foram o único fator independentemente associado à manutenção desses anticorpos decorridos sete anos. O grupo que perdeu soropositividade para VHA foi revacinado e 83,3% (5/6) responderam com anticorpos >20 mUI/mL. CONCLUSÕES: Os níveis de anticorpos obtidos na primovacinação no grupo HIV foram o principal fator associado à perda de anticorpos após imunização VHA