OBJECTIVE: To analyze our experience and learning curve for robotic pyeloplasty during this robotic procedure. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients underwent 100 consecutive procedures. Cases were divided into 4 groups of 25 consecutive procedures to analyze the learning curve. RESULTS: The median anastomosis times were 50.0, 36.8, 34.2 and 29.0 minutes (p=0.137) in the sequential groups, respectively. The median operative times were 144.6, 119.2, 114.5 and 94.6 minutes, with a significant difference between groups 1 and 2 (p=0.015), 1 and 3 (p=0.002), 1 and 4 (p<0.001) and 2 and 4 (p=0.022). The mean hospital stay was 7.08, 4.76, 4.88 and 4.20 days, with a difference between groups 1 and 2 (p<0.001), 1 and 3 (p<0.001) and 1 and 4 (p<0.001). Clinical and radiological improvements were observed in 98.9% of patients. One patient presented with recurrent obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a high success rate with low complication rates. A significant decrease in hospital stay and surgical time was evident after 25 cases.
Purpose: To compare the perioperative complication rate obtained with the transperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (TLRP) and with the extraperitoneal LRP (ELRP) during the learning curve (LC). Materials and Methods: Data of the initial 40 TLRP (Group 1) were retrospectively compared with the initial 40 ELRP (Group 2). Each Group of patients was operated by two different surgeons. Results: The overall surgical time (175 min x 267.6 min; p < 0.001) and estimated blood loss (177.5 mL x 292.4 mL; p < 0.001) were statistically better in the Group 1. Two intraoperative complications were observed in Group 1 (5%) represented by one case of bleeding and one case of rectal injury, whereas four complications (10%) were observed in Group 2, represented by two cases of bleeding, one bladder and one rectal injuries (p = 0.675). Open conversion occurred once in each Group (2.5%). Overall postoperative complications were similar (52.5% x 35%; p = 0.365). Major early postoperative complications occurred in three and in one case in Group 1 and 2, respectively. Group 1 had two peritonitis (fecal and urinary), leading to one death in this group. Conclusions: No statistical differences in overall complication rates were observed. The transperitoneal approach presented more serious complications during the early postoperative time and this fact is attributed to the potential chance of intraperitoneal peritonitis not observed with the extraperitoneal route.
Objectives: Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) is a common cause of urinary tract infections in children, being less commonly diagnosed in adults. Several anti-reflux plasties have been used successfully for the treatment of such condition, such as Politano-Leadbetter, Cohen and Gregoir-Lich techniques, the latter being our preferred approach in open procedures. Here we describe our experience with laparoscopic Gregoir-Lich anti-reflux plasty (LGLP) in children and adults. Methods: The LGLP was used for the treatment of VUR in 15 patients (7 adults and 8 children). Four adults and 5 children had bilateral disease and both sides were treated at the same procedure. Data was collected prospectively and we analysed age at treatment, laterality, degree of VUR, previous anti-reflux procedures, operative time, number of detrusor stitches used in each side, intra-operative and post-operative complications, success rate and follow-up. Results: A total of 23 ureteral units were treated. VUR was graded as I in one unit, II in 4 units, III in 10 units, IV in 7 units and 1 unit was not classified, as it was diagnosed by radioisotopic cystography. Two children had failed previous endoscopic procedures. There were no open conversions. Two muccosal perforations occurred during the procedure and were successfully treated laparoscopically. Nineteen out of 21 ureteral units (90%) presented no VUR at the cystographic control, and no bladder dysfunction was identified on follow-up. Conclusions: The LGLP is a feasible, minimally invasive alternative for VUR that reproduces the open procedure. It has an excelent success rate and is not associated to bladder disfunction, even in bilateral procedures.
Objetivo: El reflujo vesicoureteral (RVU) es una causa común de infecciones del tracto urinario en niños, siendo diagnosticado con menos frecuencia en adultos. Se han utilizado varias técnicas antirreflujo para el tratamiento de dicha condición, como las técnicas de Politano-Leadbet-ter, Cohen y Gregoir-Lich, siendo ésta última nuestro abordaje preferido en cirugía abierta. Describimos nuestra experiencia con la plastia antirreflujo laparoscópica de Gregoir-Lich en niños y adultos. Métodos: La plastia de Gregoir-Lich laparoscópica fue utilizada en el tratamiento del RVU en 15 pacientes (7 adultos y 8 niños). Cuatro adultos y cinco niños respectivamente tenían reflujo bilateral, tratándose ambos lados en el mismo acto quirúrgico. Los datos fueron recogidos prospectivamente y se analizó edad en el momento el tratamiento, lado, grado de RVU, operaciones antirreflujo previas, tiempo operatorio, número de puntos del detrusor utilizados en cada lado, complicaciones intra y postoperatorias, tasa de éxitos y seguimiento. Resultados: Se trataron un total de 23 unidades ureterales. El RVU fue grado I en 1 uréter, II en 4, III en 10 y IV en 7, en un uréter no se asignó grado porque se diagnosticó mediante cistografía radioisotópica. Dos niños habían tenido operaciones endoscópicas previas que fracasaron. No hubo ninguna conversión a cirugía abierta. Hubo dos casos de perforación mucosa durante el procedimiento que fueron tratadas con éxito por vía laparoscópica. Diecinueve de las 21 unidades ureterales (90%) no presentaban RVU en el control mediante cistografía, y no se identificó disfunción vesical en el seguimiento. Conclusiones: La plastia laparoscópica de Gregoir-Lich es una alternativa factible, mínimamente invasiva para el RVU que reproduce el procedimiento abierto. Tiene un excelente porcentaje de éxitos y no se asocia con disfunción vesical, cruzó en procedimientos bilaterales.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence on the sexual function of women and to identify whether such treatment can improve their sexual function and overall quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 64 heterosexual women with such indication were studied using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire, modified by introducing one question to evaluate the impact of urine loss. This was applied preoperatively and six months after surgery. RESULT: Among these 64 patients, 60.94% had regular sexual activity, while 39.06% did not. Among sexually active patients, 59% had urine loss during sexual intercourse and, of these, 87% had urine losses in half or more of sexual relations. There were no statistically significant differences in assessments of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain, or in totaling the scores, between the preoperative period and six months after surgical treatment. However, the scores for urine losses during sexual intercourse were significantly better after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the results allowed the following conclusions to be reached: Urine lost during sexual activity was frequent among patients with stress urinary incontinence. Suburethral support surgery did not jeopardize sexual activity. Patients cured of stress urinary incontinence did not present improvement in sexual function.
INTRODUCTION: This work evaluates the results of ureteroscopic treatment of impacted ureteral stones with a pneumatic lithotripter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 1997 to May 2002, 42 patients with impacted ureteral stones were treated by retrograde ureteroscopic pneumatic lithotripsy. Twenty-eight patients were female and 14 were male. The stone size ranged from 5 to 20 mm. The ureteral sites of the stones were distal in 21, middle in 12 and proximal in 9. RESULTS: Considering stones with distal location in the ureter, 1 patient had ureteral perforation and developed a stricture in the follow-up (4.7%). As for stones in the middle ureter, 2 perforations and 1 stricture were observed (8.3%) and regarding stones located in the proximal ureter, 5 perforations and 4 strictures occurred (44%). In the mid ureter, 1 ureteral avulsion was verified. In 34 patients without ureteral perforation, only 1 developed a stricture (2.9%). Of 8 patients who had perforation, 6 developed strictures. The overall incidence of stricture following treatment of impacted ureteral calculi was 14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Ureteroscopy for impacted ureteral calculi is associated with a higher incidence of ureteral perforation and stricture. Ureteroscopy of proximal ureteral calculi is associated with a high risk of perforation, when compared to mid or distal ureteral calculi. Ureteral perforation at the site of the stone seems to be the primary risk factor for stricture formation in these cases.
OBJECTIVE: Compare two different techniques for laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN), related to the operative costs and learning curve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April/2000 and October/2003, 61 patients were submitted to LDN in 2 different reference centers in kidney transplantation. At center A (CA), 11 patients were operated by a pure transperitoneal approach, using Hem-O-Lok<FONT FACE=Symbol>Ò</FONT> clips for the renal pedicle control and the specimens were retrieved manually, without using endobags. At center B (CB), 50 patients were also operated by a pure transperitoneal approach, but the renal pedicles were controlled with endo-GIA appliers and the specimens were retrieved using endobags. RESULTS: Operative time (231 ± 39 min vs. 179 ± 30 min; p < 0.000), warm ischemia time (5.85 ± 2.85 min vs. 3.84 ± 3.84 min; p = 0.002) and blood loss (214 ± 98 mL vs. 141 ± 82 mL; p = 0.02) were statistically better in CB, when compared to CA. Discharge time was similar in both centers. One major complication was observed in both centers, leading to an open conversion in CA (9.1%). One donor death occurred in CB (2%). Regarding the recipients, no statistical difference was observed in all parameters analyzed. There was an economy of US$1.440 in each procedure performed in CA, when compared to CB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the learning curve, the technique adopted by CA, showed no deleterious results to the donors and recipients when compared with the CB. On the other hand, this technique was cheaper than the technique performed in the CB, representing an attractive alternative for LDN, mainly in developing centers.
We discuss the case of a 13-year old boy with urinary infection who was preoperatively diagnosed with left vesicoureteral reflux associated with paraurethral saccule. Laparoscopic Lich-Gregoir anti-reflux surgery was then proposed. Intraoperatively, we observed segmental megaureter that was successfully treated by the proposed technique without ureteral modeling, contrary to the rule that respects the 3-5 times ratio between the submucous path and the ureteral diameter.
OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56%) and 22 female (44%). Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%), the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2%) its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.
Objective: urolithiasis affects between five and 10% of the human population during their lifetime, only 2-3% of whom are children. Therapy of urolithiasis in the pediatric age group with minimally invasive methodology represents an attractive alternative. This study presents results of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, a minimally invasive methodology, for the treatment of urolithiasis in children. Methods: in the period between September 1991 and September 2000, 87 children were submitted to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy; as six of them presented with two calculi 93 urinary calculi were treated over that period. The Dornier-Philips lithotriptor was used in the procedures. Results: pelvic, superior and medium caliceal calculi were fragmented and eliminated in 87.7% and 77.8% of cases, respectively. Inferior caliceal stones were eliminated in 64.7% of cases. Only one of the three patients with staghorn calculi became stone-free after therapy (33.3%). All patients with ureteral calculi were stone-free after therapy. Bladder stones were fragmented and eliminated in 60% of cases. Conclusions: extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a safe and effective treatment for pelvic, caliceal, ureteral and bladder urolithiasis in children. Staghorn calculi have not shown satisfactory results when treated by this method. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy results were influenced in our experience by the position and size of the treated calculi.
Objetivo: cálculos urinários atingem de 5 a 10% da população em alguma fase da vida. Destes casos, somente 2 a 3% são crianças. O tratamento da litíase urinária na faixa pediátrica, com o uso de métodos minimamente invasivos, representa uma alternativa cada vez mais atraente. O presente trabalho objetiva apresentar resultados de litotripsia extracorpórea como tratamento minimamente invasivo de litíase urinária na infância. Métodos: no período de setembro de 1991 a setembro de 2000, foram tratadas e acompanhadas 87 crianças, sendo que seis delas tinham dois cálculos; portanto foram tratados 93 cálculos urinários. Foi utilizado o equipamento de litotripsia extracorpórea por ondas de choque, da Dornier-Philips. Resultados: os cálculos piélicos, caliciais superiores e médios foram fragmentados e eliminados na porcentagem de 87,7% e 77,8%, respectivamente. Os cálculos localizados no cálice inferior foram eliminados em 64,7%. Dos três casos de cálculo coraliforme, somente um ficou livre do cálculo (33,3%). Os dez pacientes com cálculo ureteral ficaram livres de litíase (100%). Os cálculos vesicais foram tratados e eliminados em 60% dos casos. Conclusão: a litotripsia extracorpórea demonstrou ser uma forma eficiente de tratamento de cálculos piélicos, caliciais, ureterais e vesicais em crianças. Cálculos coraliformes não tiveram bons resultados quando tratados por meio de litotripsia extracorpórea. Os resultados deste método foram influenciados pela localização e tamanho dos cálculos.