Abstract Mother-to-child transmission in Toxoplasma gondii infection occurs only when the infection is acquired for the first time during pregnancy. Diag nosis of maternal infection and the newborn is achieved by a combination of serological tests, clinical features and ultrasound images. An early diagnosis of maternal infection allows treatment that offers a reduction both in transmission rate and risk of congenital damage. The aim of this expert consensus was to review the scientific literature which would enable an update of the clinical practice guideline of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis in our country.
Resumen La transmisión vertical de la infección por Toxoplasma gondii ocurre cuando la madre se infecta por primera vez en el transcurso del embarazo. El diagnóstico de la infección materna y la del re cién nacido se logra con el conjunto de pruebas serológicas, hallazgos clínicos y ecográficos. El reconocimiento temprano de la infección materna permite un tratamiento que reduce la tasa de transmisión y el riesgo de daño en el producto de la concepción. El objetivo de este consenso de expertos fue revisar la literatura científica para actualizar las recomendaciones de práctica clínica respecto de la prevención, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la toxoplasmosis congénita en nuestro país.
A prevalence study of antibodies anti Toxoplasma gondii in voluntary blood donors who attended the hemotherapy service at the Hospital Alemán during the first four months of the years 1997, 2007 and 2017 was carried out and the results were compared to the study carried out in 1967. The sera where processed with the Sabin Feldman Dye Test. The global average seroprevalence in 1967 was 67.0% (CI95%, 64.4%-69.6%); in 1997, 35.0% (CI95%, 33.3%-38.3%); in 2007, 31.9% (CI95%, 29.6%-34.2%) and in 2017, 21.2% (CI95%, 19.0%-23.3%). In the fifty years covered by the study the decline in prevalence was 45.8%, which represents an average annual decline of 0.9%.The decline was statistically significant between 1967 and 1997, and between 2007 and 2017. The four studies demonstrate that infection prevalence increased depending on age. The infection rate for 1967 was 1.0% per year and declined in the next studies to 0.8% in 1997, 0.8% in 2007, and 0.5% in 2017. Donors from the last study responded to a survey that showed a statistically significant correlation between seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and lack of tap water, unfinished secondary studies or residence in the western or southern part of the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. No significant association was found with having a cat as a pet, the consumption of undercooked meat or the practice of gardening.
Se estudió la prevalencia de anticuerpos anti Toxoplasma gondii a los dadores voluntarios de sangre que concurrieron durante el primer cuatrimestre de los años 1997, 2007 y 2017 al Servicio de Hemoterapia del Hospital Alemán de Buenos Aires y se compararon los resultados con el estudio efectuado en el año 1967. Los sueros fueron procesados con el Sabin Feldman Dye Test. La seroprevalencia promedio en 1967 fue 67.0% (IC95%, 64.4%-69.6%), en 1997, 35% (IC95%, 33.3%-38.3%), en 2007, 31.9 % (IC95%, 29.6%-34.2%) y en 2017, 21.2% (IC95%, 19.0%-23.3%). En los cincuenta años que abarca el estudio la disminución de la prevalencia fue de 45.8%, que representa una declinación anual promedio del 0.9%. El descenso fue estadísticamente significativo entre los años 1967 y 1997 y entre 2007 y 2017. En los cuatro estudios se observó un incremento de la prevalencia de infección en función de la edad. La tasa de infección calculada para el año 1967 fue 1.0% y disminuyó en los estudios posteriores, a 0.8% en 1997, 0.7% en 2007 y 0.5% en 2017. Los donantes del último estudio respondieron una encuesta que mostró una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre seroprevalencia de anticuerpos anti-Toxoplasma gondii y la carencia de agua corriente, estudios secundarios no concluidos o la residencia en zona oeste o sur del conurbano bonaerense. No se encontró una asociación significativa con tener un gato como mascota, consumo de carne poco cocida o práctica de jardinería.
Abstract The last Brazilian guidelines on melanoma were published in 2002. Development in diagnosis and treatment made updating necessary. The coordinators elaborated ten clinical questions, based on PICO system. A Medline search, according to specific MeSH terms for each of the 10 questions was performed and articles selected were classified from A to D according to level of scientific evidence. Based on the results, recommendations were defined and classified according to scientific strength. The present Guidelines were divided in two parts for editorial and publication reasons. In this second part, the following clinical questions were answered: 1) which patients with primary cutaneous melanoma benefit from sentinel lymph node biopsy? 2) Follow-up with body mapping is indicated for which patients? 3) Is preventive excision of acral nevi beneficious to patients? 4) Is preventive excision of giant congenital nevi beneficious to patients? 5) How should stages 0 and I primary cutaneous melanoma patients be followed?
Abstract: The last Brazilian guidelines on melanoma were published in 2002. Development in diagnosis and treatment made updating necessary. The coordinators elaborated ten clinical questions, based on PICO system. A Medline search, according to specific MeSH terms for each of the 10 questions was performed and articles selected were classified from A to D according to level of scientific evidence. Based on the results, recommendations were defined and classified according to scientific strength. The present Guidelines were divided in two parts for editorial and publication reasons. In the first part, the following clinical questions were answered: 1) The use of dermoscopy for diagnosis of primary cutaneous melanoma brings benefits for patients when compared with clinical examination? 2) Does dermoscopy favor diagnosis of nail apparatus melanoma? 3) Is there a prognostic difference when incisional or excisional biopsies are used? 4) Does revision by a pathologist trained in melanoma contribute to diagnosis and treatment of primary cutaneous melanoma? What margins should be used to treat lentigo maligna melanoma and melanoma in situ?
INTRODUCTION: There are various approaches to the treatment of cutaneous tumors; one of them is treatment with imiquimod, a synthetic toll-like receptor agonist with a low molecular weight that offers a topical, noninvasive, and non-surgical therapeutic option. The main objective of our study was to provide data on 89 patients who used a 5% imiquimod cream for the treatment of cutaneous tumors at the Cutaneous Oncology Group of the Dermatology Department of Hospital das Clinicas from 2003 to 2008. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we present our experience in the treatment of 123 cutaneous tumors of various types, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat, Paget's disease, and trichoepithelioma, with 5% imiquimod cream from 2003 to 2008 in the Cutaneous Oncology Group of the Dermatology Department of Hospital das Clinicas. Patients were divided into two separate groups according to their diagnosis and comorbidities; these comorbidities included epidermodysplasia verruciformis, xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism, basal cell nevus syndrome, Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, HIV, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, B-cell lymphoma, and kidney transplantation. Treatment duration, response to imiquimod, follow-up, recurrence, and local and systemic reactions associated with use of the drug were analyzed. Epidemiological data were obtained and cure rates were calculated. RESULTS: The ratio of women to men was 1.28:1, and the mean age was 63.1 years. Tumors were located mainly on the face, back, trunk, and legs. For patients with comorbidities, the overall cure rate was 38%. These specific patients demonstrated cure rates of 83.5% for superficial BCC and 50% for Bowen's disease. Aggressive BCC and superficial and nodular BCC did not present a good response to treatment. Trichoepitheliomas and nodular BCC showed a partial response, and erythroplasia of Queyrat showed a complete response. For patients without comorbidities, the overall cure rate was 73%. For these patients, the cure rates were 85.7% for superficial and nodular BCC, 88% for superficial BCC, 57% for Bowen's disease, 50% for nodular BCC, and 50% for aggressive BCC. One SCC lesion demonstrated a complete response, and tumors caused by Paget's disease and erythroplasia of Queyrat presented a partial response. None of the tumors considered as clinically cured recurred. Thirty-seven lesions demonstrated no response to imiquimod. Having a cutaneous comorbidity, high-risk tumors such as mixed aggressive BCC (sclerodermiform or micronodular), nodular BCC, or Bowen's disease, and presenting no local reaction to imiquimod were considered as risk factors for a worse prognosis. We demonstrate that patients with no response to imiquimod, even when they demonstrated no local reaction, can undergo another cycle of six weeks of imiquimod treatment and show a complete response. The healing pattern led to good cosmetic outcomes, and the side effects were tolerable. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience confirms imiquimod as an effective treatment option for several types of cutaneous tumors, especially in patients without the cutaneous comorbidities cited above and with low-risk tumors. Imiquimod has a relatively low cost compared to other therapeutic options and can be delivered via ambulatory care to patients with surgery contraindications, and its side effects are tolerable.
OBJETIVO: Apresentar os aspectos ultra-sonográficos da esclerodermia localizada e relacioná-los com os aspectos clínicos. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas 23 lesões de esclerodermia localizada em 21 pacientes. Foi utilizado equipamento Logiq 700 com transdutor linear de 6-14 MHz. Foram avaliados, pelo dermatologista, o estágio da doença (inflamatório ou atrófico), e pelo radiologista, a espessura e a ecogenicidade da derme nas regiões afetadas e sãs adjacentes. Foi feito acompanhamento de sete casos após tratamento. RESULTADOS: Todas as lesões apresentaram perda do padrão ultra-sonográfico normal da derme. Os casos de lesão clinicamente atrófica (52,2%; 12/23) corresponderam a redução da espessura e aumento da ecogenicidade da derme e os casos de lesão clinicamente inflamatória (47,8%; 11/23) corresponderam a aumento da espessura e redução da ecogenicidade da derme. Controles pós-tratamento mostraram alterações na espessura da derme. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados ultra-sonográficos nos permitem associar o aumento da espessura e a redução da ecogenicidade da derme com a fase inflamatória da doença, e a redução da espessura e o aumento da ecogenicidade da derme com a fase atrófica da doença. Notamos também que é possível quantificar a espessura da derme e usar essa informação no controle pós-tratamento associada à avaliação clínica.
OBJECTIVE: To describe ultrasonographic findings of localized cutaneous scleroderma and correlating them with clinical findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-three lesions of localized cutaneous scleroderma in 21 patients were evaluated with a Logiq 700 equipment coupled with a 6-14 MHz linear transducer. The disease stage (athrophic or inflammatory) was evaluated by a dermatologist, and the ultrasonographic findings (skin thickness and echogenicity) for both the affected and adjacent healthy regions were evaluated by a radiologist. Seven of the cases underwent post-treatment follow-up. RESULTS: All the affected regions presented loss of the normal ultrasonographic pattern of the dermis. Cases with clinically atrophic lesions (52.2%; 12/23) corresponded to reduction in the thickness and increase in the echogenicity of the dermis, and clinically inflammatory lesions (47.8%; 11/23) corresponded to decrease in echogenicity and increase in the thickness of the dermis. Post-treatment follow-up demonstrated alterations in the dermis thickness. CONCLUSION: The ultrasonographic findings allow the correlation between increase in the thickness/decrease in echogenicity of the dermis with the inflammatory phase of the disease, and decrease of the thickness/increase in echogenicity of the dermis with the atrophic phase. Also, it could be observed that it is possible to quantify the thickness of the dermis, utilizing this information associated with the clinical evaluation in the post-treatment follow-up.
FUNDAMENTOS: O carcinoma basocelular é tumor constituído por diferentes tipos histológicos, que demonstram diversificado potencial de agressividade. Sabe-se que a correlação entre os tipos histológicos de carcinoma basocelular encontrados no material de biópsia pré-operatória e no material da peça cirúrgica excisional não é total. Na literatura essa correlação varia de 42,7 a 80%. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a correlação entre os tipos histológicos de carcinoma basocelular nas biópsias incisionais e respectivas peças cirúrgicas excisionais. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de 70 casos de carcinoma basocelular primário submetidos a biópsia pré-operatória e cirurgia excisional. A avaliação histológica foi feita de modo padronizado, determinando tanto o tipo histológico predominante quanto os tipos histológicos acessórios encontrados no material das biópsias préoperatórias e nas peças cirúrgicas excisionais. RESULTADOS: Houve 78,3% de correlação entre tipo histológico predominante da biópsia e peça cirúrgica e 87% de correlação entre tipo histológico predominante e/ou tipo histológico acessório da biópsia e tipo histológico predominante da peça cirúrgica. CONCLUSÃO: A biópsia pré-operatória é útil para predizer o tipo histológico predominante de carcinoma basocelular da peça cirúrgica excisional na maioria dos casos. No entanto, é importante ressaltar que, quando descrito apenas o tipo histológico predominante encontrado na biópsia, ocorre 21,7% de falha no diagnóstico.
BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is a tumor with many histologic types, each one with different aggressiveness potential. The known correlation between histologic types found in preoperative biopsy samples and excisional specimens is not absolute. Correspondence rates vary from 42.7 to 80.0% in medical literature. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between histologic types of basal cell carcinoma in preoperative biopsies and their respective excised surgical specimens. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 70 primary basal cell carcinoma cases submitted to preoperative biopsies and excisional surgery. The histologic evaluation was performed according to standard practice determining both the predominant and secondary histologic types found in preoperative biopsy materials and surgically excised specimens. RESULTS: There was a 78.3% correlation rate between the predominant histologic type of the biopsy and the surgical specimen, and an 87% correspondence between the predominant histologic type and/or secondary histologic type of the biopsy and/or predominant histologic type of the surgical specimen. CONCLUSION: The preoperative biopsy is useful for predicting the predominant basal cell carcinoma histologic type of the surgical excisional specimen in most cases. Nevertheless, when only the predominant histologic type found in biopsy is described, there is a 21.7% failure rate in diagnosis. When both predominant histologic types and secondary histologic types found in the biopsy are described, diagnostic failure drops to 13%.