ABSTRACT Objective: To define the epidemiological profile and the main determinants of morbidity and mortality in noncardiac high surgical risk patients in Brazil. Methods: This was a prospective, observational and multicenter study. All noncardiac surgical patients admitted to intensive care units, i.e., those considered high risk, within a 1-month period were evaluated and monitored daily for a maximum of 7 days in the intensive care unit to determine complications. The 28-day postoperative, intensive care unit and hospital mortality rates were evaluated. Results: Twenty-nine intensive care units participated in the study. Surgeries were performed in 25,500 patients, of whom 904 (3.5%) were high-risk (95% confidence interval - 95%CI 3.3% - 3.8%) and were included in the study. Of the participating patients, 48.3% were from private intensive care units, and 51.7% were from public intensive care units. The length of stay in the intensive care unit was 2.0 (1.0 - 4.0) days, and the length of hospital stay was 9.5 (5.4 - 18.6) days. The complication rate was 29.9% (95%CI 26.4 - 33.7), and the 28-day postoperative mortality rate was 9.6% (95%CI 7.4 - 12.1). The independent risk factors for complications were the Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3; odds ratio - OR = 1.02; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.03) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score (SOFA) on admission to the intensive care unit (OR = 1.17; 95%CI 1.09 - 1.25), surgical time (OR = 1.001, 95%CI 1.000 - 1.002) and emergency surgeries (OR = 1.93, 95%CI, 1.10 - 3.38). In addition, there were associations with 28-day mortality (OR = 1.032; 95%CI 1.011 - 1.052), SAPS 3 (OR = 1.041; 95%CI 1.107 - 1.279), SOFA (OR = 1.175, 95%CI 1.069 - 1.292) and emergency surgeries (OR = 2.509; 95%CI 1.040 - 6.051). Conclusion: Higher prognostic scores, elderly patients, longer surgical times and emergency surgeries were strongly associated with higher 28-day mortality and more complications during the intensive care unit stay.
RESUMO Objetivo: Definir o perfil epidemiológico e os principais determinantes de morbimortalidade dos pacientes cirúrgicos não cardíacos de alto risco no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, observacional e multicêntrico. Todos os pacientes cirúrgicos não cardíacos admitidos nas unidades de terapia intensiva, ou seja, considerados de alto risco, no período de 1 mês, foram avaliados e acompanhados diariamente por, no máximo, 7 dias na unidade de terapia intensiva, para determinação de complicações. As taxas de mortalidade em 28 dias de pós-operatório, na unidade de terapia intensiva e hospitalar foram avaliadas. Resultados: Participaram 29 unidades de terapia intensiva onde foram realizadas cirurgias em 25.500 pacientes, dos quais 904 (3,5%) de alto risco (intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 3,3% - 3,8%), tendo sido incluídos no estudo. Dos pacientes envolvidos, 48,3% eram de unidades de terapia intensiva privadas e 51,7% de públicas. O tempo de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva foi de 2,0 (1,0 - 4,0) dias e hospitalar de 9,5 (5,4 - 18,6) dias. As taxas de complicações foram 29,9% (IC95% 26,4 - 33,7) e mortalidade em 28 dias pós-cirurgia 9,6% (IC95% 7,4 - 12,1). Os fatores independentes de risco para complicações foram Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3; razão de chance − RC = 1,02; IC95% 1,01 - 1,03) e Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score (SOFA) da admissão na unidade de terapia intensiva (RC =1,17; IC95% 1,09 - 1,25), tempo de cirurgia (RC = 1,001; IC95% 1,000 - 1,002) e cirurgias de emergências (RC = 1,93; IC95% 1,10 - 3,38). Em adição, foram associados com mortalidade em 28 dias idade (RC = 1,032; IC95% 1,011 - 1,052) SAPS 3 (RC = 1,041; IC95% 1,107 - 1,279), SOFA (RC = 1,175; IC95% 1,069 - 1,292) e cirurgias emergenciais (RC = 2,509; IC95% 1,040 - 6,051). Conclusão: Pacientes com escores prognósticos mais elevados, idosos, tempo cirúrgico e cirurgias emergenciais estiveram fortemente associados a maior mortalidade em 28 dias e mais complicações durante permanência em unidade de terapia intensiva.
Abstract Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is an issue that has been overlooked (not to say neglected). Cardiac surgeons must bear in mind that this is a real problem that we must tackle. The purpose of this paper is to be a wake-up call to the surgical community by giving a brief overview of what PPM is, its incidence and impact on the outcomes. We also discuss the increasing role played by imaging for predicting and assessing PPM after SAVR (with which surgeons must become more acquainted) and, finally, we present some options to avoid PPM after the surgical procedure.
Abstract Objectives: This study sought to evaluate the impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) on the risk of early-term mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods: Databases (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online [MEDLINE], Excerpta Medica dataBASE [EMBASE], Cochrane Controlled Trials Register [CENTRAL/CCTR], ClinicalTrials.gov, Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences [LILACS], and Google Scholar) were searched for studies published until February 2019. PPM after TAVI was defined as moderate if the indexed effective orifice area (iEOA) was between 0.85 cm2/m2 and 0.65 cm2/m2 and as severe if iEOA ≤ 0.65 cm2/m2. Results: The search yielded 1,092 studies for inclusion. Of these, 18 articles were analyzed, and their data extracted. The total number of patients included who underwent TAVI was 71,106. The incidence of PPM after TAVI was 36.3% (25,846 with PPM and 45,260 without PPM). One-year mortality was not increased in patients with any PPM (odds ratio [OR] 1.021, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.979-1.065, P=0.338) neither in those with moderate PPM (OR 0.980, 95% CI 0.933-1.029, P=0.423). Severe PPM was separately associated with high risk (OR 1.109, 95% CI 1.041-1.181, P=0.001). Conclusion: The presence of severe PPM after TAVI increased early-term mortality. Although moderate PPM seemed harmless, the findings of this study cannot not rule out the possibility of it being detrimental, since there are other registries that did not address this issue yet.
Abstract Objective: This study sought to evaluate the impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on the risk of perioperative and long-term mortality after mitral valve replacement. Methods: Databases were researched for studies published until December 2018. Main outcomes of interest were perioperative and 10-year mortality and echocardiographic parameters. Results: The research yielded 2,985 studies for inclusion. Of these, 16 articles were analyzed, and their data extracted. The total number of patients included was 10,239, who underwent mitral valve replacement. The incidence of prosthesis-patient mismatch after mitral valve replacement was 53.7% (5,499 with prosthesis-patient mismatch and 4,740 without prosthesis-patient mismatch). Perioperative (OR 1.519; 95%CI 1.194-1.931, P<0.001) and 10-year (OR 1.515; 95%CI 1.280-1.795, P<0.001) mortality was increased in patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch. Patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch after mitral valve replacement had higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure and transprosthethic gradient and lower indexed effective orifice area and left ventricle ejection fraction. Conclusion: Prosthesis-patient mismatch increases perioperative and long-term mortality. Prosthesis-patient mismatch is also associated with pulmonary hypertension and depressed left ventricle systolic function. The findings of this study support the implementation of surgical strategies to prevent prosthesis-patient mismatch in order to decrease mortality rates.
Abstract The best treatment for patients with ischemic heart failure (HF) is still on debate. There is growing evidence that coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) benefits these patients. The current recommendations for revascularization in this context are that CABG is reasonable when it comes to decreasing morbidity and mortality rates for patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction <35%), and significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and should be considered in patients with operable coronary anatomy, regardless whether or not there is a viable myocardium (class IIb). Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) does not have enough data to allow the panels to reach a conclusion. The Korean Acute Heart Failure registry (KorAHF) had its data released recently, showing that patients with acute HF who underwent CABG had lower death rates, more complete revascularization and less adverse outcomes compared with patients treated with PCI. Recent ESC/EACTS guidelines on myocardial revascularization clearly recommended CABG as the first choice of revascularization strategy in patients with multivessel disease and acceptable surgical risk to improve prognosis in this scenario of left ventricular dysfunction. However, a high peri-procedural risk must be compared with the benefit of late mortality, and pros and cons of each strategy (either PCI or CABG) must be weighed in the decision-making process. Spurred on by the publication of the above-mentioned article and the release of new guidelines, we went on to write an overview of the current practice of state-of-the-art coronary revascularization options in patients with HF.
Abstract Objective: We aimed to analyze whether patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure reduces the risk of stroke, assessing also some safety outcomes after the publication of a new trial. Introduction: The clinical benefit of closing a PFO has been an open question, so it is necessary to review the current state of published medical data in regards to this subject. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were used to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported any of the following outcomes: stroke, death, major bleeding or atrial fibrillation. Six studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included 3560 patients (1889 for PFO closure and 1671 for medical therapy. Results: The risk ration (RR) for stroke in the “closure” group compared with the “medical therapy” showed a statistically significant difference between the groups, favouring the “closure” group (RR 0.366; 95%CI 0.171–0.782, P=0.010). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the safety outcomes, death and major bleeding, but we observed an increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation in the “closure” group (RR 4.131; 95%CI 2.293–7.443, P<0.001). We also observed that the larger the proportion of effective closure, the lower the risk of stroke. Conclusion: This meta-analysis found that stroke rates are lower with percutaneously implanted device closure than with medical therapy alone, being these rates modulated by the rates of hypertension, atrial septal aneurysm and effective closure. The publication of a new trial did not change the scenario in the medical literature.
Abstract Objective: We aimed to determine whether patent foramen ovale closure reduces the risk of stroke, also assessing some safety outcomes. Introduction: The clinical benefit of closing a patent foramen ovale after a cryptogenic stroke has been an open question for several decades, so that it is necessary to review the current state of published medical data in this regard. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LI-LACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for randomized controlled trials that reported any of the following outcomes: stroke, death, major bleeding or atrial fibrillation. Five studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included 3440 patients (1829 for patent foramen ovale closure and 1611 for medical therapy). Results: The risk ratio (RR) for stroke in the "device closure" group compared with the "medical therapy" showed a statistically significant difference between the groups, favouring the "device closure" group (RR 0.400; 95% CI 0.183-0.873, P=0.021). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the safety outcomes death and major bleeding, but we observed an increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation in the "device closure group (RR 4.000; 95% CI 2.262-7.092, P<0.001). We also observed that the larger the proportion of effective closure, the lower the risk of stroke. Conclusion: This meta-analysis found that stroke rates are lower with percutaneously implanted device closure than with medical therapy alone, being these rates modulated by the rates of effective closure.
Abstract Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for clinical studies that reported outcomes at 1-year follow-up after PCI with DES and CABG for the treatment of ULMCA stenosis. Five studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and they included a total of 4.595 patients (2.298 for CABG and 2.297 for PCI with DES). Results: At 1-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between CABG and DES groups concerning the risk for death (risk ratio [RR] 0.973, P=0.830), myocardial infarction (RR 0.694, P=0.148), stroke (RR 1.224, P=0.598), and major adverse cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events (RR 0.948, P=0.680). The risk for target vessel revascularization (TVR) was significantly lower in the CABG group compared to the DES group (RR 0.583, P<0.001). It was observed no publication bias regarding the outcomes, but only the outcome TVR was free from substantial statistical heterogeneity of the effects. In the meta-regression, there was evidence that the factor "female gender" modulated the effect regarding myocardial infarction rates, favoring the CABG strategy. Conclusion: CABG surgery remains the best option of treatment for patients with ULMCA disease, with lower TVR rates.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation with ultrasound ablation concomitant to mitral surgery in PROCAPE's patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. METHODS: From March 2008 through January 2009 a prospective study was performed at the Pernambuco Cardiology Emergency Facility on 44 consecutive patients with a permanent atrial fibrillation and concomitant cardiac valvular surgery indication, from March 2008 through January 2009 at Pernambuco Cardiology Emergency Facility Twenty two patients underwent epicardial ultrasonic ablation on the right atrium and had ultrasonic ablation performed in the left atrium endocardial concomitant with the valve procedure. The other 22 patients, the concurrent controls were submitted to valve procedure without ultrasonic ablation. Patients with serious diseases such as coronary and others were excluded of the research. RESULTS: It was observed 90% restoration to sinus rhythm immediately after surgery in patients submitted to treatment of atrial fibrillation with ultrasound ablation simultaneous a mitral surgery. The evolution in late post operation showed that the maintenance of sinus rhythm drops although it was still 27% higher in the group which received ablation compared with the control group. 86.40% of the patients who received ablation had improved in functional class; they also have fewer complications than patients in the control group. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the patients who received treatment for atrial fibrillation simultaneously with valvar surgery had advantages related to the control group.
OBJETIVO: Este estudo visa avaliar a eficácia do tratamento cirúrgico da fibrilação atrial com ablação por ultrassom, concomitante à cirurgia valvar mitral, em pacientes do Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco (PROCAPE) portadores de fibrilação atrial permanente. MÉTODOS: De março 2008 até janeiro 2009, foi realizado no PROCAPE um estudo prospectivo com 44 pacientes consecutivos, portadores de fibrilação atrial permanente e indicação de cirurgia valvar mitral. Vinte e dois pacientes foram submetidos à ablação com ultrassom no epicárdio do átrio direito (AD) e no endocárdio do átrio esquerdo (AE) concomitantemente ao reparo valvar. Os outros 22 pacientes foram submetidos ao procedimento valvar sem ablação por ultrassom. Pacientes com doença coronária diagnosticada e outras enfermidades graves foram excluídos da pesquisa. RESULTADOS: Foi observada 90% de reversão da FA a ritmo sinusal no pós-operatório imediato dos pacientes que receberam ablação por ultrassom concomitante ao reparo mitral. A evolução no pós-operatório tardio mostrou queda na permanência da reversão a sinusal, porém o grupo que recebeu intervenção ainda apresentou percentual superior a 27% em relação ao grupo controle. Dos 22 pacientes submetidos à ablação com ultrassom, 86,40% apresentaram melhora da classe funcional e não foi constatado neste grupo maior ocorrência de complicações do que no grupo que foi submetido à correção valvar sem ablação. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apresentados pelo estudo demonstraram que os pacientes submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico da FA, com aplicação de ultrassom concomitante à correção valvar, apresentaram vantagens em relação ao grupo controle.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the technique and evaluate the immediate results of using an ultrasonic scalpel in the skeletonization of the internal thoracic artery for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. METHODS: From January 2000 to October 2006, 188 patients were submitted to coronary artery bypass grafting with the internal thoracic artery skeletonized using an ultrasonic scalpel. Seventy-one patients (37.8%) were women. The patients' ages varied from 28 to 81 years old. The entire internal thoracic artery was exposed opening the endothoracic fascia using scissors as close as possible to the arterial adventitia. An ultrasonic scalpel was used to transect and coagulate all the intercostal branches, thereby minimizing the use of metallic clips. RESULTS: The skeletonized internal thoracic arteries presented with excellent flow, obviating the need for intraluminal manipulation for vasodilatation. In the immediate postoperative period, two patients were found to have temporary left-sided diaphragmatic paralysis. There were no sternal wound infections in this series. The dissection can be performed in approximately 33 minutes however with more experience this time may be reduced. CONCLUSION: This technique facilitates and shortens the internal thoracic artery skeletonization procedure and does not cause arterial spasms. Cauterization of the collateral branches with an ultrasonic scalpel is efficient and the use of metallic clips is almost unnecessary. It is a procedure that is easy to reproduce and may be recommended as the first-choice technique for the dissection of the internal thoracic artery.
OBJETIVO: Descrever a técnica e avaliar os resultados imediatos da utilização do bisturi ultra-sônico nas esqueletizações da artéria torácica interna, na cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio. MÉTODO: Foram operados com essa técnica 188 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio, no período de janeiro de 2000 a outubro de 2006. Setenta e um (37,8%) pacientes eram do sexo feminino. A idade variou de 28 a 81 anos. A técnica utilizada na dissecação consistiu em expor toda artéria torácica interna, abrindo-se a fáscia endotorácica com tesoura o mais próximo possível da adventícia da artéria. Com o bisturi ultra-sônico é feita a secção dos ramos colaterais e sua respectiva hemostasia, dispensando-se o uso de "clips" metálicos na artéria torácica interna. RESULTADOS: As artérias torácicas internas esqueletizadas com bisturi ultra-sônico apresentaram fluxos excelentes, não sendo necessárias manipulações intraluminais para vasodilatação. No pós-operatório imediato, dois pacientes apresentaram paralisia temporária da hemicúpula diafragmática esquerda. Não houve infecção do esterno nesta série. O tempo de dissecação foi de aproximadamente 33 minutos, mas com o aumento da experiência esse tempo pôde ser reduzido. CONCLUSÃO: Essa técnica facilita e abrevia o procedimento da esqueletização da artéria torácica interna, não promove espasmos e a cauterização dos ramos colaterais com o bisturi ultra-sônico é eficiente, dispensando o uso de "clips" metálicos. É um procedimento de fácil reprodução, podendo ser recomendado para sua realização de maneira preferencial.
Carcass physical composition and meat qualitative characteristics of cull cows from two breeding systems, straightbreds (Charolais and Nellore) and crossbreds F1 1/2 Charolais-Nellore and 1/2 Nellore-Charolais, were evaluated. The cows were feedlot finished during 80 days and fed with 65% roughage (sorghum silage) and 35% concentrate, in dry matter basis. Charolais cows showed carcass with higher muscle (65.2 vs 58.8%) and bone (15.36 vs 13.7%) percentages, higher muscle (166.5 vs 139.61 kg) and bone (38.84 vs 32.34 kg) production than Nellore cows. Meat from Charolais cows also exhibited better color (3.75 vs 3.14), tenderness (6.22 vs 5.34) and juiciness (6.16 vs 5.56). Nellore cows showed higher fat percentage (27.95 vs 19.85%), total fat production (66.7 vs 51.2 kg) and higher meat thawing losses (6.15 vs 4.18%). Crossbreds F1 females were superior to the straightbreds for fat percentage (26.74 vs 23.9%), total fat production (72.79 vs 58.95 kg), however, showed lower muscle percentage in the carcass (59.59 vs 62.02%), being the heterosis values 11.88, 23.48 and <FONT FACE=Symbol>¾</FONT>3.92%, respectively. Meat qualitative characteristics were not affected by the breeding system.
Foram estudadas as características qualitativas da carcaça e da carne e a composição física das carcaças de vacas de descarte terminadas em confinamento, pertencentes a dois sistemas de acasalamento, puras (Charolês e Nelore) e mestiças F1 1/2 Charolês-Nelore e 1/2 Nelore-Charolês. Os animais foram confinados por 80 dias, recebendo uma dieta contendo 10% de PB, composta por 65% de volumoso (silagem de sorgo) e 35% de concentrado, com base na matéria seca. Observou-se, na comparação entre animais puros, que vacas Charolês apresentaram carcaças com maiores porcentagens de músculo (65,21 contra 58,83%) e osso (15,26 contra 13,7%) que vacas Nelore, bem como maiores produções de músculo (166,58 contra 139,61 kg) e osso (38,84 contra 32,34 kg), além de melhor coloração (3,75 contra 3,14), maciez (6,22 contra 5,34) e suculência da carne (6,16 contra 5,56). As vacas Nelore, no entanto, apresentaram maior percentagem (27,95 contra 19,85%) e produção total de gordura (66,7 contra 51,2 kg), assim como maior quebra durante o descongelamento da carne (6,15 contra 4,18%). Na comparação entre os sistemas de acasalamento, observou-se que os animais mestiços apresentaram maiores porcentagem (26,74 contra 23,90%) e produção total de gordura (72,79 contra 58,95 kg) e menor percentagem de músculo na carcaça (59,59 contra 62,02%) que a média dos puros, resultando em valores de heterose de 11,88; 23,48; e -3,92%, respectivamente. As características qualitativas da carne não foram influenciadas pelo sistema de acasalamento.