ABSTRACT Amaranthus hybridus is a C4 broadleaf species widely spread across Brazilian agricultural territory. Recently, several herbicide resistance reports have been documented in southern Brazil, including the reports for enolpyruvilshikymate-3-phosphate (EPSPS)- and acetolactate-synthase (ALS)- inhibitors. The objective of this study was to confirm the existence of an ALS resistant (R) A. hybridus population from Paraná state. Dose-response experiments were conducted with R and a known susceptible (S) population with herbicides from three different chemical groups of ALS inhibitors. Biomass relative to untreated control was quantified and GR50 (dose for 50% of biomass reduction), GR90 (dose for 90% of biomass reduction) and resistant index (RI) were calculated based on non-linear regression analysis. The R population was 6.9-fold resistant to chlorimuron-ethyl and 6.5-fold resistant to metsulfuron-ethyl (sulfonylureas - SUL). Additionally, the recommended rates from each herbicide was not sufficient to reach 90% control to R based on GR90 parameter estimation. There was no resistance to imazethapyr (imidazolinone - IMI) and cloransulan-methyl (triazolopyrimidine - TRI) due to the low doses of GR90 and non-significant RIs. The R A. hybridus population investigated was resistant to ALS inhibitors chlorimuron-ethyl and metsulfuron-ethyl (SUL), but susceptible to IMI and TRI herbicides.
ABSTRACT A very limited amount of information is available in relation both to the residual effect of herbicides destinated to the destruction of cotton stalks and to the time interval required to prevent that development and yield of the following crop be affected. This work aimed to identify the residual activity of herbicides intended to eliminate cotton stalks and to estimate the safety interval (SI) of time for the next cotton sowing. Two trails were simultaneously carried out, the first one for a single application and a second one for the two sequential applications of herbicide treatments, in a 15×5 factorial design organized in randomized complete blocks with four replications. Levels of first factor were constituted by herbicide treatments and the levels of the second factor were composed five periods of time for cotton sowing after herbicide application (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days). Herbicides were 2,4-D, glyphosate, saflufenacil, [imazapic + imazapyr], dicamba, fluroxypyr and sulfentrazone. Results provided an indication of residual activity of herbicide treatments in soil and indicated that a single application or two sequential applications of glyphosate + dicamba + saflufenacil have a considerable potential to affect cotton and a period exceeding 100 days for a single application and exceeding 120 days for two sequential applications was necessary. Treatments with 2,4-D and 2,4-D + glyphosate provided the shortest safe interval and may be used for cotton stalk destruction with no risks for the crop sowing after the withdrawal period.
ABSTRACT More than one herbicide application is usually necessary to manage glyphosate-resistant sourgrass in advanced stages of development efficiently during off-season fallow periods. The objective of this study was to determine the best interval between two sequential applications to control sourgrass, based on the number of days and tiller-height after the first treatment. Two experiments were conducted based on these criteria. Experiment 1 consisted of one application of glyphosate + clethodim (1140 ae ha-1 + 108 g ha-1) followed by glyphosate + clethodim or paraquat (400 g ai ha-1) at an interval of 10, 17, 24, 31, 28, or 45 days. Experiment 2 was conducted with the same herbicide treatments, but using the tiller-height as the criteria for the second application, which were 2-5, 6-10, 11-20, 21-30, and >30 cm. None of the treatments resulted in total sourgrass control during the evaluation period. Overall, treatments with glyphosate + clethodim in the second application were more efficient than paraquat. The most effective interval between sequential applications of glyphosate + clethodim was observed at 17 to 24 days. For paraquat, the best interval for the second application was 6-10 days. The most effective performances based on the tiller-height were found at 620 cm tall for glyphosate + clethodim and 6-10 cm tall for paraquat.
RESUMO Para o manejo de capim-amargoso resistente ao glyphosate nos períodos de entressafra, existe a necessidade de mais de uma aplicação de herbicidas para o controle satisfatório. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o intervalo em número de dias e altura do rebrote entre aplicações sequenciais no controle de capim-amargoso perenizado. Foram realizados dois experimentos, sendo o experimento 1 consistuido pela aplicação sequencial de glyphosate + clethodim (1140 + 108 g ha-1) ou paraquat (400 g i.a. ha-1) em intervalos de 10, 17, 24, 31, 38 ou 45 dias após a aplicação de glyphosate + clethodim (1140 + 108 g ha-1). O experimento 2 foi formado pela aplicação dos mesmos tratamentos herbicidas, porém considerando a altura de rebrote como critério para a segunda aplicação, sendo 2-5, 6-10, 11-20, 21-30 ou >30 cm. Nenhum tratamento resultou em controle total das plantas durante o período de avaliação dos experimentos. De forma geral, melhores resultados são obtidos com a segunda aplicação de glyphosate + clethodim em relação ao paraquat. A segunda aplicação com glyphosate + clethodim deve ser realizada entre 17 e 24 dias após a primeira aplicação, enquanto o paraquat deve ser aplicado entre 6 e 10 dias após a primeira aplicação. Ao considerar o tamanho do rebrote das plantas na segunda aplicação, o ideal é de 6-20 cm para glyphosate + clethodim e de 6-10 cm para paraquat.
ABSTRACT Glyphosate has been widely used to control greater beggarticks populations that are resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors in South America. However, herbicide control failures has been observed over the last three growing seasons in grain production areas of Paraguay. In this research, we report the first case of multiple resistance to glyphosate (EPSPs) and imazethapyr (ALS) in greater beggarticks (Bidens subalternans) population from Paraguay. This conclusion was supported by dose-response experiments conducted in two consecutive years (2018 and 2019) with a putative resistant (R) and a susceptible (S) population. Alternative herbicides were also tested for post-emergence control of R population. For glyphosate, the resistant factor (RF) values were 8.8- (2018) and 15.7-fold (2019). For imazethapyr, the RF values were 59- and 58-fold, in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Treatments with 2,4-D, dicamba, 2,4-D + glyphosate, dicamba + glyphosate, lactofen, fomesafen, ammonium-glufosinate, atrazine, and bentazon provided more than 80% control of the R population. This is the first case of multiple resistance to glyphosate and imazethapyr in greater beggarticks (Bidens subalternans) in the world. The mechanisms underlying resistance in this biotype should be evaluated in future research.
RESUMO O glyphosate vem sendo amplamente utilizado para o controle de populações de picão-preto resistentes a inibidores da acetolactato sintase (ALS) na América do Sul. No entanto, falhas de controle foram observadas no campo nas três últimas safras em áreas de produção de grãos no Paraguai. Neste trabalho, nós relatamos o primeiro caso de resistência múltipla a glyphosate (EPSPS) e imazethapyr (ALS) em uma população de picão-preto (Bidens subalternans) do Paraguai. Esta conclusão foi sustentada em experimentos de dose-resposta conduzidos em dois anos consecutivos (2018 e 2019) com uma população suspeita de resistência (R) e outra suscetível (S). Herbicidas alternativos também foram avaliados para o controle da população R em pós-emergência. Para o glyphosate, o fator de resistência (FR) foram 8 e 10 em 2018 e 2019, respectivamente. Para imazethapyr, os valores de FR foram 59 (2018) e 58 (2019). Tratamentos com 2,4-D, dicamba, 2,4-D + glyphosate, lactofen, fomesafen, glufosinato de amônio, atrazine e bentazon proporcionaram mais de 80% de controle da população R. Este é o primeiro relato de resistência múltipla a glyphosate e imazethapyr em picão-preto (Bidens subalternans) no mundo. O mecanismo de resistência neste biótipo deve ser avaliado nas próximas pesquisas.