BACKGROUND Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, and compromises the skin and peripheral nerves. This disease has been classified as multibacillary (MB) or paucibacillary (PB) depending on the host immune response. Genetic epidemiology studies in leprosy have shown the influence of human genetic components on the disease outcomes. OBJECTIVES We conducted an association study for IL2RA and TGFB1 genes with clinical forms of leprosy based on two case-control samples. These genes encode important molecules for the immunosuppressive activity of Treg cells and present differential expressions according to the clinical forms of leprosy. Furthermore, IL2RA is a positional candidate gene because it is located near the 10p13 chromosome region, presenting a linkage peak for PB leprosy. METHODS A total of 885 leprosy cases were included in the study; 406 cases from Rondonópolis County (start population), a hyperendemic region for leprosy in Brazil, and 479 cases from São Paulo state (replication population), which has lower epidemiological indexes for the disease. We tested 11 polymorphisms in the IL2RA gene and the missense variant rs1800470 in the TGFB1 gene. FINDINGS The AA genotype of rs2386841 in IL2RA was associated with the PB form in the start population. The AA genotype of rs1800470 in TGFB1 was associated with the MB form in the start population, and this association was confirmed for the replication population. MAIN CONCLUSIONS We demonstrated, for the first time, an association data with the PB form for a gene located on chromosome 10. In addition, we reported the association of TGFB1 gene with the MB form. Our results place these genes as candidates for validation and replication studies in leprosy polarisation.
Introdução/Objetivos: A dissecção aórtica tipo A (AD) geralmente requer tratamento cirúrgico urgente e a substituição do segmento aórtico continua o gold standard. No entanto, é um procedimento muito agressivo e alguns doentes são excluídos do tratamento pelas suas comorbilidades. Atualmente, o tratamento endovascular representa uma alternativa, ainda sem indicações precisas. O nosso objetivo é apresentar um caso de tratamento híbrido de uma AD tipo A com recurso a um acesso vascular cardíaco transapical. Material/Métodos: revisão de um caso clínico e literatura. Resultados: Homem de 65 anos com antecedentes de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crónica, fibrilação auricular e hipertensão arterial; recorreu ao serviço de urgência por dor abdominal. Realizou angio-TAC que revelou uma AD tipo A e uma úlcera (PAU) na aorta ascendente (AA). Após a avaliação por cirurgia cardíaca, foi considerado não candidato para cirurgia convencional. A angio-TAC foi repetida após duas semanas de tratamento médico e revelou crescimento do falso aneurisma, com risco iminente de rutura. Ponderamos o tratamento endovascular e diferentes opções foram consideradas, a decisão final foi propor um tratamento híbrido. O procedimento foi iniciado com um bypass femoro-axilar direito e embolização do tronco braquiocefálico. Em seguida, uma endoprótese (Valiant®) foi libertada abaixo da artéria subclávia esquerda e dois periscópios (Viabahn®) foram progredidos das artérias axilar e carótida esquerdas e a segunda endoprótese (Valiant®) foi libertada, dentro da primeira, com cobertura da carótida e subclávia esquerdas. Após várias tentativas, não foi possível progredir a terceira endoprótese para a Aorta Ascendente por falta de suporte e instabilidade hemodinâmica e o procedimento foi interrompido. Posteriormente, a angio-TAC foi repetida e revelou dissecção da AA permeável e o falso aneurisma não tratado. Foram discutidas outras opções e foi ponderado um acesso vascular anterógrado (transapical) com o objetivo de conseguir o suporte para progredir a endoprótese. Com o apoio de um cirurgião cardíaco, o ápice cardíaco foi abordado e puncionado e um fio guia rígido foi avançado, criando um throught-and-through, do apéx cardíaco até à artéria femoral, o que permitiu o avanço da endoprótese (Valiant®) por via retrógrada e a sua libertação em rapid pacing sem intercorrências e com bom resultado final. Discussão/Conclusões: o tratamento endovascular AD tipo A é uma alternativa em doentes de alto risco clínico e características anatómicas adequadas, ainda que tecnicamente possa ser desafiante. Quando a progressão da endoprótese por acesso vascular retrógrado não é conseguida, a abordagem cardíaca transapical é uma alternativa a ser considerada.
Introduction/Objectives: Type A aortic dissection (AD) usually requires urgent surgical treatment and aortic segment replacement remains the gold standard. However, it is a very aggressive procedure and some patients are considered too frail for this treatment. Nowadays, endovascular repair represents an alternative treatment but still without precise indications. Our objective is to present a case of hybrid treatment of a type A AD with resource a transapical cardiac access. Material/Methods: Clinical case and literature review. Results: A 65-year-old man with history of chronic pulmonary obstructive disease, atrial fibrillation and hypertension came to the emergency department with abdominal pain. He underwent angio-CT that revealed type A AD with an PAU in the ascending aorta (AA). After evaluation by cardiac surgery, he was considered too frail for conventional surgery. Angio-CT was repeated after two weeks of medical treatment and revealed false aneurysm growth, with imminent risk of rupture. We thought about endovascular treatment and different options were considered, the final decision was to propose the patient for an hybrid treatment. The procedure was started with a femoro-rigth axilar bypass and embolization of the brachyocephalic trunk. Then an endoprosthesis (Valiant®) was delivered below the left subclavian artery and two periscopes (Viabahn®) were progressed form left carotid and axillar arteries and the second endoprosthesis (Valiant®) was released into the aorta, inside the first, with coverage of the left common carotid and subclavian, and the Viabahn® were released. After multiple attempts, it was not possible to progress the third endoprosthesis AA because of lack of support and hemodynamic instability whenever the guidewire was progressed for the left ventricle and the procedure was interrupted. Subsequently performed angio-CT revealed permeable AA dissection and untreated false aneurysm. We discussed other options and an anterograde (transapical) approach was considered to progress a guidewire on through-and-through to achieve the support we need to progress the endoprothesis. With the support of the cardiac surgery the cardiac apex was punctured and using the through-and-through technique the guide wire was progressed to femoral artery which allowed advancement of the endoprosthesis (Valiant®) through the retrograde pathway and release under rapid-pacing in the AA with good final result. Discussion/Conclusions: Endovascular treatment is an alternative in patients of high clinical risk and adequate anatomical characteristics, yet technically challenging. When the retrograde progression of the endoprosthesis is not achieved, the transapical cardiac approach is an alternative to be considered.
The microcephaly epidemic in Brazil generated intense debate regarding its causality, and one hypothesised cause of this epidemic, now recognised as congenital Zika virus syndrome, was the treatment of drinking water tanks with pyriproxyfen to control Aedes aegypti larvae. We present the results of a geographical analysis of the association between the prevalence of microcephaly confirmed by Fenton growth charts and the type of larvicide used in the municipalities that were home to the mothers of the affected newborns in the metropolitan region of Recife in Pernambuco, the state in Brazil where the epidemic was first detected. The overall prevalence of microcephaly was 82 per 10,000 live births in the three municipalities that used the larvicide Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis) instead of pyriproxyfen, and 69 per 10,000 live births in the eleven municipalities that used pyriproxyfen. The difference was not statistically significant. Our results show that the prevalence of microcephaly was not higher in the areas in which pyriproxyfen was used. In this ecological approach, there was no evidence of a correlation between the use of pyriproxyfen in the municipalities and the microcephaly epidemic.
ABSTRACT Pododermatitis, also known as "bumblefoot", is an inflammatory lesion of the footpad. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic strain and sex on the incidence of footpad lesions in broilers. The experiment was carried out at São Paulo State University, using 480 broilers distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2X2 factorial arrangement (2 strains X2 sexes), with four replicates of 30 broilers each, totaling 16 experimental units. Feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and livability were evaluated at 21, 35 and 42 days of age; production efficiency factor was determined at the end of the rearing period. On day 42, the footpads of 100 broilers were grossly examined and assigned a lesion score in a 1-3 scale (Almeida Paz & Martins, 2014). Three samples per score within treatment were collected for microscopic evaluation. Analysis of variance was applied and performance parameter means were compared by Tukey's test. Footpad lesion incidence was analyzed by the c2 test using SAS (version8.2). Ross(r) broilers presented higher feed intake during all evaluated periods, and higher weight gain only in the period 1 to 21 days compared with Cobb(r) broilers. On the other hand, Cobb(r) presented better feed conversion ratio in the periods of 1 to 35 and 1 to 42 days. The incidence of foot pad lesions was statistically different (p< 0.05) between strains and sexes, but there were no interactions between these factors. The lesion scores assigned were compatible with the histopathological results, showing that the higher the score, the more severe were the dermal and epidermal lesions.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was evaluated the villus integrity of commercial turkeys submitted to coccidiosis prevention methods and challenged with Eimeria field oocysts, using scanning electron microscopy. Sixty BUT 9 female commercial turkeys were distributed in a completely randomized block design split with two treatments: T1- control diet without vaccinations against coccidiosis and anticoccidial drug, and T2- vaccinated against coccidiosis (commercial vaccine). On d 21 of life, all birds of all treatments were challenged with a mixed-species containing E. meleagrimitis and E. galopavonis, via crop intubation with 1 mL of ~20,000 sporulated oocysts/bird. The size of the inoculum was determined in previous experiments. At 27 and 70 days of age, five birds per treatment were randomly removed to evaluate the intestinal integrity. Duodenum, jejunum and ileum segments were collected and processed according to routine scanning electron microscope. The enteric mucosa integrity of the commercial turkeys subjected to coccidiosis vaccination was reduced when compared to the birds of the control treatment. There was no difference in the performance results, therefore these results cannot be attributed to the vaccination as well as to the ineffectiveness against the challenge that was administered.
Among the main benefits of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) compared to open adrenalectomy (OA) the rapid recovery of patients with decreased length of stay in hospital can be highlighted. The objective of this study was to compare the open adrenalectomy with laparoscopic adrenalectomy in swine. Thirty-two swine were operated. The animals had been divided into four groups (n = 8), one group was submitted to OA and the other to LA, together with its respective control group. Parameters were evaluated regarding operative time, body temperature, hematocrit, postoperative and intraoperative complications and time to deambulation. There was no meaningful difference between operative and deambulation times, even though the latter having been higher in the group submitted to OA. The most frequent intercurrences were in bowel, damage to adrenal vessels and renal hematoma. There were no significant blood losses, and observed hypothermia did not have any clinical impact. Laparoscopy in swine experimental adrenalectomy is a reliable technique that can serve as a reference for the surgical treatment of patients with adrenal diseases with surgical indications in other animal species.
Dentre os principais benefícios da adrenalectomia laparoscópica (AL) frente à adrenalectomia aberta (AA) destaca-se a rápida recuperação dos pacientes com diminuição do tempo de internação. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a adrenalectomia aberta com a adrenalectomia laparoscópica em suínos. Foram operados 32 suínos, distribuídos em quatro grupos (n=8), sendo um grupo submetido à AA e outro grupo à AL, com seus respectivos grupos controle. Foram avaliados parâmetros referentes a tempo operatório, temperatura corporal, hematócrito, intercorrências operatórias e tempo de deambulação. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tempos operatórios e de deambulação, apesar deste último ter sido maior no grupo submetido à AA. As intercorrências mais frequentes foram acidentes em alças intestinais, lesões em vasos adrenais e hematoma renal. As perdas sanguíneas não foram significativas, a hipotermia observada não apresentou repercussão clínica. A laparoscopia para adrenalectomia experimental em suínos é uma técnica confiável podendo servir como referência para o tratamento de doenças adrenais com indicações cirúrgicas em outras espécies animais. Palavras-chave: glândulas supra-renais; irrigação sanguínea; videocirurgia.
This study aimed at evaluating the intestinal integrity, using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the performance of broiler chickens fed additives alternative to antimicrobials. A total of 1080 male chicks were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design, with six treatments with six replicates of 30 birds each. The following treatments were evaluated: basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with an antimicrobial, basal diet supplemented with a probiotic, basal diet supplemented with a prebiotic, basal diet with a symbiotic, and basal diet supplemented with organic acids. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and livability were recorded when broiler chickens were 10, 21, 35, and 42 days old. On day 42, 72 birds were individually weighed and sacrificed. In order to evaluate the morphometrics of the different intestinal wall layers, segments of the small intestine and the cecum were collected from two birds per replicate, and intestinal integrity (SEM) was evaluated in the same segments of two birds per treatment. During the starter period (1-21 days old), birds fed the alternative additives presented similar weight gain as those fed the antimicrobial product, but were not different from control birds. Feed conversion ratio of birds fed alternative additives was better than that of the control birds from one to 10 days of age, but not during the remaining rearing period, and was similar to the birds receiving the antimicrobial. The morphometric parameters of the different intestinal wall layers was not influenced by the treatments. During the total rearing period, the evaluated alternative additives did not improve intestinal integrity or broiler performance.
This study aimed at evaluating total or partial replacement of corn by sorghum in broiler diets and at estimating the effect of the pigment supplementation on broiler performance, carcass and cuts yield, and possible breast and leg pigmentation. We used 1680 one-d-old Ross® 308 broilers. Birds were sexed and distributed according to a completely randomized design (2 x 3 + 1). Treatments consisted of a control diet based on corn and diets with two levels corn replacement by sorghum (50 and 100%) and three pigments levels, with four replicates of 60 birds per treatment. There was no effect (p > 0.05) of the dietary replacement of corn by sorghum on performance, carcass and parts yield, and no changes in breast and leg meat pH (p >0.05). Meat redness (a*), yellowness (b*) and luminosity (L*) increased (p < 0.05) as pigment inclusion levels increased. It was concluded that the use of sorghum instead of corn did not affect broiler performance or carcass and cuts yield. When adequate pigments were used, meat color significantly improved.
The Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA) regulations establish 12 hours as the maximum pre-slaughter fasting period for broilers; however, many processing plants have considered this time is not sufficient, and consequently return the birds to the farms, with consequent economic losses and welfare problems. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the possible effects of longer pre-slaughter fasting times. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-slaughter fasting times longer than those established by MAPA on broiler welfare, breast meat quality, and intestinal integrity. Forty 42-d-old broilers were submitted to different pre-slaughter fasting times: group I: 6 hours, group II 9h, group III 12h, and group IV 15h. Bird welfare was assessed before slaughter. After sacrifice, intestinal samples were collected to assess their morphology and morphometrics, and the Pectoralis major muscle was analyzed for pH and color. There was no influence (p>0.05) of treatments on breast muscle pH or color.There were no significant changes in intestinal morphometrics (p<0.05). Bird behavior was affected (p<0.05), suggesting that welfare was impaired as fasting time increased, but no differences in the analyzed parameters were detected between broilers fasted for 12 or 15 hours. It was concluded that the behavioral differences between birds fasted for 12 and 15 hours are not sufficient to assert that those fasted for 15 hours were in worse welfare conditions.
Soroprevalence for Hepatitis C virus is reported as 2.12% in Northern Brazil, with about 50% of the patients exhibiting a sustained virological response (SVR). Aiming to associate polymorphisms in Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) with chronic hepatitis C and therapy responses we investigated 125 chronic patients and 345 controls. Additionally, 48 ancestry markers were genotyped to control for population stratification. The frequency of the KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL2+HLA-C Asp80 gene and ligand was higher in chronic infected patients than in controls (p < 0.0009, OR = 3.4; p = 0.001, OR = 3.45). In fact, KIR2DL3 is a weaker inhibitor of NK activity than KIR2DL2, which could explain the association of KIR2DL2 with chronic infection. Moreover, KIR2DS2 and KIR2DS2+HLA-C Asp80 (p < 0.0001, OR = 2.51; p = 0.0084, OR = 2.62) and KIR2DS3 (p < 0.0001; OR = 2.57) were associated with chronic infection, independently from KIR2DL2. No differences in ancestry composition were observed between control and patients, even with respect to therapy response groups. The allelic profile KIR2DL2/KIR2DS2/KIR2DS3 was associated with the chronic hepatitis C (p < 0.0001; OR = 3). Furthermore, the patients also showed a higher mean number of activating genes and a lower frequency of the homozygous AA profile, which is likely secondary to the association with non-AA and/or activating genes. In addition, the KIR2DS5 allele was associated with SVR (p = 0.0261; OR = 0.184).The ancestry analysis of samples ruled out any effects of population substructuring and did not evidence interethnic differences in therapy response, as suggested in previous studies.
This article describes the genetic evolution of commercial broilers between 1990 and 2009, considering live performance, in particular, in terms of weight gain and feed conversion ratio. In order to determine if the assumption that the relationship between body weight gain and feed conversion ratio is increasing and positive, information on all broiler strains reared in Brazil were collected from several companies present in five Brazilian regions. This survey aimed at evaluating broiler live performance as a function of genetic improvement with time. Broiler performance improved, as shown by the statistical differences obtained for the following parameters: livability, live weight, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and production efficiency index between 1990 and 2009. However, live weight gain and feed conversion ratio are emphasized due to the significant differences found along the studied period.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid (AA) in rats, against the neuronal damage and memory deficit caused by seizures. Wistar rats were treated with 0.9% saline (i.p., control group), ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg, i.p., AA group), pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p., pilocarpine group), and the association of ascorbic acid (500 mg/kg, i.p.) plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, i.p.), 30 min before of administration of ascorbic acid (AA plus pilocarpine group). After the treatments all groups were observed for 24 h. Pilocarpine group presented seizures which progressed to status epilepticus in 75% of the animals. Pretreatment with AA led to a reduction of 50% of this rate. Results showed that pretreatment with AA did not alter reference memory when compared to a control group. In the working memory task, we observed a significant day's effect with important differences between control, pilocarpine and AA plus pilocarpine groups. Pilocarpine and AA plus pilocarpine groups had 81 and 16% of animals with brain injury, respectively. In the hippocampus of pilocarpine animals, it was detected an injury of 60%. As for the animals tested with AA plus pilocarpine, the hippocampal region of the group had a reduction of 43% in hippocampal lesion. Our findings suggest that seizures caused cognitive dysfunction and neuronal damage that might be related, at least in part, to the neurological problems presented by epileptic patients. AA can reverse cognitive dysfunction observed in rats with seizures as well as decrease neuronal injury in rat hippocampus.
O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito neuroprotetor do ácido ascórbico (AA), contra o dano neuronal e o déficit de memória em ratos causados pelas convulsões. Ratos Wistar foram tratados com solução salina a 0,9% (i.p., grupo controle), ácido ascórbico (500 mg/kg, i.p., grupo AA), pilocarpina (400 mg/kg, i.p., grupo pilocarpina), e a associação de ácido ascórbico (500 mg/kg, i.p.) com pilocarpina (400 mg/kg, i.p.), 30 min após a administração de ácido ascórbico (AA + pilocarpina grupo). Após os tratamentos todos os grupos foram observados durante 24 h. O grupo pilocarpina apresentou crises convulsivas que evoluíram para o estado de mal epiléptico em 75% dos animais. O pré-tratamento com AA produz uma redução de 50% nesta taxa. Os resultados mostraram que o pré-tratamento com AA não alterou a memória em relação ao controle. No teste de memória, observou-se um efeito significativo nos dias avaliados entre os grupos controle, pilocarpina e AA + pilocarpina. 81 e 16% dos animais dos grupos AA + pilocarpina e pilocarpina apresentaram danos cerebrais, respectivamente. No hipocampo dos animais do grupo pilocarpina, que foi detectada uma lesão de hipocampal de 60%. Quanto aos animais do grupo AA + pilocarpina, a região do hipocampo apresentou uma redução de 43% na extensão da lesão no hippocampo. Nosso resultados sugerem que as convulsões produzem disfunção cognitiva e dano neuronal que podem estar relacionados, pelo menos em parte, aos problemas neurológicos apresentados pelos pacientes epilépticos. O ácido ascórbico pode reverter essa disfunção cognitiva observado em ratos convulsivos, bem como reduz o desenvolvimento da lesão neuronal no hipocampo de ratos.
An experiment was carried out to establish mean bone quality values of the tibiae and femora of ostriches and to evaluate these bones. The right leg bones of 10 males and 10 female African Black ostriches were evaluated. Birds were radiographed immediately after slaughter (during bleeding), with the aid of a portable X-ray apparatus. The obtained radiographs were scanned and bone mineral density means were obtained using software. Bone strength, Seedor index, and dry matter percentage were evaluated and correlated to weight gain during the finishing period (3-13 months of age). Mean values of the evaluated bone quality traits, not previously found in literature, were established. There were no significant differences between males and females in performance or bone quality parameters. It was concluded that male and female ostriches present similar performance and bone quality at slaughter age.
This study aimed at evaluating the effect of different fasting periods and water spray during lairage on the quality of chicken meat. A number of 300 male Ross broilers were reared up to 42 days of age, and submitted to four pre-slaughter fasting periods (4, 8, 12, and 16 hours) and sprayed with water or not during lairage. Deboned breast meat was submitted to the following analysis: pH, color, drip loss, water retention capacity, cooking loss, and shear force. There was a significant effect (p < 0.05) of fasting period on meat luminosity was significantly different, with the highest value obtained for 4-hour fasting, whereas no difference was found among the other fasting periods. Meat pH values were different among fasting periods when birds received water spray, with birds fasted for 4, 8, and 12 hours of fasting presenting lower meat pH values (5.87, 5.87, and 6.04, respectively). The interaction between fasting period and water spray influenced meat drip loss and cooking loss, with birds fasted for 16h and not receiving water spray presenting higher drip loss (4.88) and higher cooking loss (28.24) as compared to the other birds. Fasting period affects meat quality, and very short periods (4h) impair meat quality.
An experiment was carried out with male and females broilers of two different commercial breeds to evaluate bone mineral density of the right femur head. A number of 600 one-day-old broilers were raised in an experimental poultry house up to 42 days of age at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil. After slaughter, three males and three females in each breed in each of the established gross scores were selected. Their femora heads were submitted to gross examination, and subsequently the thighs were submitted to the Veterinary Hospital for radiographic analysis. Femora were also submitted to bone resistance, Seedor index, and dry matter content analyses. All these bone quality characteristics were different between males and females, independent of breed. Breeds presented similar behavior. It was possible to establish correlations between bone quality parameters, and confidence intervals for bone mineral density values, correlating them to femoral degeneration score, which allows characterizing femoral head lesions by radiographic optical densitometry.