Abstract Peanut is a crop of the Kayabi tribe, inhabiting the Xingu Indigenous Park, Brazil. Morphological analysis of Xingu accessions showed variation exceeding that described for cultivated peanuts. This raised questions as to the origin of the Xingu accessions: are they derived from different species, or is their diversity a result of different evolutionary and selection processes? To answer these questions, cytogenetic and genotyping analyses were conducted. The karyotypes of Xingu accessions analyzed are very similar to each other, to an A. hypogaea subsp. fastigiata accession and to the wild allotetraploid A. monticola. The accessions share the number and general morphology of the chromosomes; DAPI+ bands; 5S and 45S rDNA loci distribution and a high genomic affinity with A. duranensis and A. ipaënsis genomic probes. However, the number of CMA3+ bands differs from those determined for A. hypogaea and A. monticola, which are also different from each other. SNP genotyping grouped all Arachis allotetraploids into four taxonomic groups: Xingu accessions were closer to A. monticola and A. hypogaea subsp. hypogaea. Our data suggests that the morphological diversity within these accessions is not associated with a different origin and can be attributed to morphological plasticity and different selection by the Indian tribes.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the biocompatibility and local sensibility reaction to bacterial cellulose hydrogel (0.8%) implanted in subcutaneous tissue of rabbits.METHODS:Fifteen New Zeland rabbits were randomly allocated into three groups: T1, 7 days, T2, 21 days, and T3, 84 days. The new material was implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of the ear; on the scalp over the periosteum; and on the outer and inner surfaces of the thighs, in the aponeurosis of the muscle. At 7, 21 and 84 postoperative days, the material was collected for histological study. The clinical signs, inflammatory response, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis were variables used for analysis of the biocompatibility and biological reactivity to BCH. Analyses were performed with an AXIO(r) Imager. The statistical tests were performed using the GraphPad Prism 5.0 program(r)RESULTS:The intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, considering the different cell types (PMN, LMN and GC), was statistically significant, with group T1 different from groups T2 and T3 (p = 0.0124 and p <0.0001, respectively) and T2 different from the T3 group (p = 0.0007). Fibrogenesis grade 1 was the most prevalent in groups T1 (55.4%) and T2 (44.6%). The formation of neovascularization in the group was identified in 84.4% of samples.CONCLUSION:Bacterial cellulose hydrogel (0.8%) is biocompatible, integrating with the subcutaneous tissue of rabbits and inducing tissue remodeling.
PURPOSE: To evaluate histologically the integration process of cellulose gel produced by Zoogloea sp when implanted into rabbits' eviscerated eyes. METHODS: This experimental study employed 36 eyes of 18 rabbits subjected to evisceration of their right eyes. The sclerocorneal bag was sutured and filled with biopolymer from sugar cane in the gel state. All animals were clinically examined by biomicroscopy until the day of their sacrifice which occurred on the 7th, 30th, 60th, 90th, 120th, or 240th day. The eyeballs obtained, including the left eyes considered controls were sent for histopathological study by optical macroscopy and microscopy. Tissue staining techniques used included hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome (with aniline), Gomori trichrome, Van Gienson, Picrosirius red, and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). RESULTS: No clinical signs of infection, allergy, toxicity, or extrusion were observed throughout the experiment. The corneas were relatively preserved. Macroscopic examination revealed a decrease of ~ 8% in the volume of the bulbs implanted with the biopolymer. After cutting, the sclerocorneal bag was solid, compact, elastic, and resistant to traction, with a smooth and whitish surface, and showed no signs of necrosis or liquefaction. The episcleral tissues were somewhat hypertrophied. The histological preparations studied in different colors revealed an initial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, replaced by a fibroblastic response and proliferation of histiocytes, along with formation of giant cells. Few polymorphonuclearneutrophils and eosinophils were also found. Neovascularization and collagen deposition were present in all animals starting from day 30; although on the 240th day of the experiment the chronic inflammatory response, neovascularization and collagen deposition had not yet reached the center of the implant. CONCLUSION: In this model, the cellulose gel produced by Zoogloea sp proved to be biocompatible and integrated into the orbits. Morphometric, immunohistochemical and biodegradability studies should be performed in the future.
OBJETIVOS: Avaliar histologicamente o processo de integração do gel da celulose produzida pela Zoogloe asp implantado em olhos eviscerados de coelhos. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental utilizando 36 olhos de 18 coelhos. Todos eles tiveram seus olhos direitos eviscerados. A bolsa escleral foi suturada e preenchida com biopolimero da cana de açúcar, no estado gel. Todos os animais foram examinados clinicamente, sob biomicroscopia, até o dia de seus sacrifícios e enucleações que aconteceram no 7º, 30º, 60º,90º,120º e 240º dia. Os bulbos obtidos, inclusive os esquerdos, considerados controles, foram encaminhados para estudo histopatológicos de macroscopia e microscopia óptica. As colorações pela hematoxilina-eosina, tricômio de Masson (com anilina), tricômio de Gomori, Van Gienson e Picrosirius red e ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS) foram usadas. RESULTADOS: Durante o experimento não foram observados sinais clínicos de infecção, alergias, intoxicação ou extrusão. As córneas apresentavam-se relativamente preservadas. Exame macroscópico revelou uma diminuição de aproximadamente 8% no volume dos bulbos nos quais o biopolímero foi implantado. O corte do saco escleral mostrou um conteúdo sólido, compacto, elástico, resistente à tração, com superfície lisa e brancacenta. Não foram observados sinais de necrose, ou liquefação. O tecido epiescleral estava algo hipertrofiado. As preparações histológicas estudadas, nas diversas colorações, revelaram uma infiltração linfomonomorfonuclear inicial, substituída posteriormente por uma resposta fibroblástica e proliferação de histiócitos com formação de células multinucleadas gigantes. Foram também encontrados poucos polimorfonucleares neutrófilos e eosinófilos. A partir do 30º dia houve proliferação vascular e deposição de calágeno em todos os espécimes estudados, embora, no 240º dia do experimento, a resposta inflamatória crônica, a neovascularização e a deposição do colágeno não tinham ainda atingido o centro do implante. CONCLUSÃO: Neste modelo, o gel da celulose produzido pela Zoogloea sp, mostrou-se biocompatível e integrado às órbitas. Estudos morfométrico, imuno-histoquímico e de biodegradabilidade devem ser realizados futuramente.
In the present study, in vitro techniques were used to investigate a range of biological activities of known natural quassinoids isobrucein B (1) and neosergeolide (2), known semi-synthetic derivative 1,12-diacetylisobrucein B (3), and a new semi-synthetic derivative, 12-acetylneosergeolide (4). These compounds were evaluated for general toxicity toward the brine shrimp species Artemia franciscana, cytotoxicity toward human tumour cells, larvicidal activity toward the dengue fever mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, haemolytic activity in mouse erythrocytes and antimalarial activity against the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited the greatest cytotoxicity against all the tumor cells tested (IC50 = 5-27 µg/L) and against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum K1 strain (IC50 = 1.0-4.0 g/L) and 3 was only cytotoxic toward the leukaemia HL-60 strain (IC50 = 11.8 µg/L). Quassinoids 1 and 2 (LC50 = 3.2-4.4 mg/L) displayed greater lethality than derivative 4 (LC50 = 75.0 mg/L) toward A. aegypti larvae, while derivative 3 was inactive. These results suggest a novel application for these natural quassinoids as larvicides. The toxicity toward A. franciscana could be correlated with the activity in several biological models, a finding that is in agreement with the literature. Importantly, none of the studied compounds exhibited in vitro haemolytic activity, suggesting specificity of the observed cytotoxic effects. This study reveals the biological potential of quassinoids 1 and 2 and to a lesser extent their semi-synthetic derivatives for their in vitro antimalarial and cytotoxic activities.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of the tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1) and carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) in the blood and pleural fluid of patients with benign or malignant pleural effusion, evaluating the sensitivity of each marker in these fluids. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 85 patients with pleural effusion. The study of the pleural fluid observed the criteria established in the literature. Levels of the markers were determined using electrochemiluminescence. The sensitivity was determined on the condition that the specificity was > 90%. RESULTS: Of the 85 cases, 36 (42.4%) were malignant, 30 (35.3%) were benign, and the results were inconclusive in 19 (22.3%). In the malignant cases, the CEA and CYFRA21-1 levels were higher in the pleural fluid than in the blood, which was not observed for CA 15-3. In the benign cases, the CYFRA21-1 levels were higher in the pleural fluid than in the blood, whereas the opposite was found for CEA and CA 15-3. There were significant differences between malignant and benign cases for all markers, in pleural fluid and blood. In the pleural fluid, the sensitivity of CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA 15-3 was 69.4, 69.4 and 66.7%, respectively, and the combined sensitivity was 80.6%. In the blood, the sensitivity was 57.1%, 71.4% and 48.6% for CEA, CYFRA21-1 and CA 15-3, respectively, and the combined sensitivity was 77%. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that these markers might be useful in the differentiation between malignant and benign pleural effusion.
OBJETIVO: Dosar os marcadores tumorais antígeno carcinoembrionário (CEA), fragmento da citoqueratina 19 (CYFRA21-1) e antígeno glicosídico associado a tumor 15-3 (CA 15-3) em sangue e líquido pleural de portadores de derrames pleurais benignos e malignos, avaliando a sensibilidade de cada um deles nesses fluidos. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos prospectivamente 85 pacientes com derrame pleural. O estudo do líquido pleural obedeceu a critérios determinados pela literatura. A dosagem dos marcadores foi realizada por eletroquimioluminescência. A sensibilidade foi determinada sob a condição de que a especificidade fosse > 90%. RESULTADOS: Foram diagnosticados 36 casos malignos (42,4%), 30 benignos (35,3%); em 19 pacientes (22,3%), o diagnóstico foi inconclusivo. Nos casos malignos, os valores de CEA e CYFRA21-1 foram maiores no líquido pleural do que no sangue, fato não observado para o CA 15-3. Nos casos benignos, os valores do CYFRA21-1 foram maiores no líquido pleural do que no soro, enquanto que para o CEA e o CA 15-3, ocorreu o oposto. Todos os marcadores apresentaram diferença significativa entre os casos malignos e benignos, em líquido pleural e soro. Foi encontrada sensibilidade para CEA, CYFRA21-1 e CA 15-3 no líquido pleural de 69,4%, 69,4% e 66,7%, respectivamente e quando associados, foi 80,6%. No soro, a sensibilidade foi 57,1, 71,4 e 48,6% para CEA, CYFRA21-1 e CA 15-3, respectivamente, e quando associados, foi 77%. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que a utilização desses marcadores pode ser útil na diferenciação entre derrames pleurais malignos e benignos.
OBJECTIVE: The association between celiac disease and diabetes mellitus has been known for many decades. This combination can be observed in a large proportion of diabetic patients, who are generally asymptomatic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of celiac disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study employing antibody IgA anti-transglutaminase for the serological screening of 354 diabetic children and adolescents treated at pediatric endocrinology clinics in Recife, state of Pernambuco, during the period from January to June 2004. RESULTS: The human anti-transglutaminase test was positive in 37/354 patients, resulting in a seroprevalence of 10.5% (95%CI 7.6-14.2%). Male patients predominated (56.8%) over female patients (43.2%) among those that were seropositive, but without statistical significance. Anti-endomysial antibody testing was performed on patients with positive human anti-transglutaminase results, being negative in 14/37 (37.8%) and positive in 22/37 (59.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of celiac disease found in diabetic children and adolescents in Pernambuco is elevated, being comparable with levels observed in studies in North America and Europe and lower than in Africa, suggesting that serological screening for celiac disease should be performed for all children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
OBJETIVO: A associação de doença celíaca e diabetes melito já é conhecida há várias décadas. Pode ser encontrada em uma grande proporção de pacientes diabéticos, que geralmente são assintomáticos. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a soroprevalência da doença celíaca em crianças e adolescentes com diabetes melito tipo 1. MÉTODOS: Através de um estudo transversal, realizou-se triagem sorológica com anticorpo IgA antitransglutaminase humana em 354 crianças e adolescentes diabéticos, atendidos em ambulatórios de endocrinologia pediátrica de Recife, Pernambuco, no período de janeiro a junho de 2004. RESULTADOS: O antitransglutaminase humana foi positivo em 37/354 pacientes, resultando em soroprevalência de 10,5% (IC95% 7,6-14,2%). Dentre os pacientes soropositivos, houve predomínio do sexo masculino (56,8%) em relação ao feminino (43,2%), porém sem significância estatística. O anticorpo antiendomísio foi realizado nos pacientes com antitransglutaminase humana positivo, sendo negativo em 14/37 (37,8%) e positivo em 22/37 (59,5%). CONCLUSÕES: A soroprevalência da doença celíaca em crianças e adolescentes diabéticos encontrada em Pernambuco é elevada, sendo comparável à observada em estudos da América do Norte e Europa e menor do que na África, sugerindo que a triagem sorológica para doença celíaca seja realizada em todas as crianças e adolescentes com diabetes melito tipo 1.