OBJECTIVES: To compare the amount of ultrasound energy and irrigation volume in conventional phacoemulsification cataract surgery versus femtosecond laser-assisted phacoemulsification at different nuclear-cortical cataract grades. METHOD: This was a prospective, consecutive, investigator-masked nonrandomized parallel cohort study. Patients were divided into 4 groups (Phaco1, Phaco2, Femto1 and Femto2) according to the surgical technique (conventional phacoemulsification [Group Phaco] or femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery [Group Femto]) and the Lens Opacity Classification System III (LOCS) grade (LOCS<11 [group 1] or LOCS≥11 [group 2]). The measured outcomes were effective phacoemulsification time (EPT), indicating the ultrasound energy, and balanced salt solution (BSS) use, indicating the irrigation volume, to indirectly estimate the damage to the corneal endothelium caused by the cataract surgery. RESULTS: A total of 160 eyes from 109 patients were included: 87 eyes in Group Phaco, 73 eyes in Group Femto, 76 eyes in group 1 and 84 eyes in group 2. The EPT mean in Femto1 was 53% less (2.73±1.88, 0.1 to 8.65) than that in Phaco1 (5.80±2.86) (p=0.00) and in Femto2 (8.38±9.32) was 33% less than that in Phaco2 (12.55±8.38) (p=0.00). No significant differences in mean LOCS grades between the Phaco1 (8.21±1.44) and Femto1 (7.90±1.90) groups (p=0.73) or between the Phaco2 (13.15±2.55) and Femto2 (12.72±2.18) groups (p=0.95) were found. There were no significant differences in the mean BSS use between the Phaco1 (55.73±12.45) and Femto1 (59.37±10.93) groups (p=0.48) or between the Phaco2 (64.34±21.00) and Femto2 (65.71±17.60) groups (p=0.47). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to conventional phacoemulsification at different nuclear-cortical cataract grades, femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery provides an EPT reduction but does not influence the BSS use.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of subconjunctival bevacizumab on corneal neovascularization in an experimental rabbit model for its effect on vessel extension, inflammation, and corneal epithelialization. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, blinded, experimental study, 20 rabbits were submitted to a chemical trauma with sodium hydroxide and subsequently divided into two groups. The experimental group received a subconjunctival injection of bevacizumab (0.15 m; 3.75 mg), and the control group received an injection of 0.15 ml saline solution. After 14 days, two blinded digital photograph analyses were conducted to evaluate the inflammation/diameter of the vessels according to pre-established criteria. A histopathological analysis of the cornea evaluated the state of the epithelium and the number of polymorphonuclear cells. RESULTS: A concordance analysis using Kappa's statistic showed a satisfactory level of agreement between the two blinded digital photography analyses. The neovascular vessel length was greater in the control group (p<0.01) than in the study group. However, the histopathological examination revealed no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the state of the epithelium and the number of polymorphonuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: Subconjunctival bevacizumab inhibited neovascularization in the rabbit cornea. However, this drug was not effective at reducing inflammation. The drug did not induce persistent corneal epithelial defects.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associated factors among six to ten-year-old students from public county schools in the urban area of Marialva in Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that used a stratified random sample of 356 students. The following variables were evaluated: body mass index, gender, age, number of siblings, physical activity and sedentary activities. Descriptive statistics was used to verify the distribution of the sample in the strata. The chi-square test was used in order to verify the differences between the distribution of the sample for each category of variables. The association between variables was tested by univariate analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight was 20% and obesity, 7%. Most students (72%) did not practice physical activity outside school and about half of them (53%) spent more than four hours a day in sedentary activities. The number of siblings was the only variable associated with excessive weight for those who had only one sibling (PR=1.64; 95%CI=1.10-2.45) and for those who had no siblings (PR=1.70; 95%CI=1.02-2.84), compared to those who had two or more siblings. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample. Further studies are needed in order to investigate the prevalence of this disease in children living in small Brazilian municipalities, as well as for research and actions to prevent and/or treat obesity
OBJETIVO: Identificar a prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade e fatores associados em alunos de seis a dez anos das escolas públicas municipais da área urbana de Marialva, no Paraná. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que utilizou uma amostra aleatória estratificada de 356 alunos. Foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: índice de massa corpórea, sexo, faixa etária, número de irmãos, atividade física e atividades sedentárias. Utilizou-se estatística descritiva para apresentação da distribuição da amostra nas estratificações. O teste do qui-quadrado foi aplicado para verificar a diferença entre a distribuição da amostra para cada uma das categorias das variáveis. A associação entre as variáveis foi realizada por meio da análise univariada, com razão de prevalência como medida de associação. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso encontrada foi de 20% e a de obesidade de 7%. A maioria dos alunos (72%) não praticava atividade física fora da escola e pouco mais da metade deles (53%) gastava mais de quatro horas por dia em atividades sedentárias. O número de irmãos foi a única variável associada com o excesso de peso (RP=1,64; IC95%=1,10-2,45) para aqueles que tinham apenas um irmão e (RP=1,70; IC95%=1,02-2,84) para os que não tinham irmão, quando comparados àqueles que tinham dois ou mais irmãos. CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se elevada prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade nessa amostra, reforçando a necessidade de mais estudos em crianças residentes em municípios de pequeno porte, assim como de pesquisas e ações que visem prevenir e/ou tratar a obesidade