Abstract Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs), also referred as “Batten disease”, are a group of thirteen rare genetic conditions, which are part of the lysosomal storage disorders. CLN type 2 (CLN2) is caused by the deficient activity of the tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPP1) enzyme, encoded by the TPP1 gene, most frequently leading to the classic late infantile phenotype. Nearly 140 CLN2-causing mutations have been described. In this case report, we describe the identification of a new disease-causing mutation and highlight the importance of appropriate laboratory investigation based on clinical suspicion. The collection of dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper, which is a convenient sample, can be used to measure the TPP1 enzyme activity and detect CLN2-related mutations. Since the biochemical and genetic diagnoses are possible and as the disease progression is fast and the therapeutic window is short, the investigation of CLN2 should be always considered when this diagnostic hypothesis is raised in order to enable the patients to benefit from the specific pharmacological treatment.
Abstract Atelosteogenesis type I (AOI) is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the filamin B (FLNB) gene with classic and well-recognizable clinical findings. However, parents affected with a mild phenotype, probably with somatic mosaicism, can generate offspring with a much more severe phenotype of AOI. In the present report, we describe a female newborn with classic AOI leading to early neonatal death, whose diagnostic was based on prenatal radiological findings and on the physical examination of the father. Since her father had limb deformities and corporal asymmetry, suggesting somatic mosaicism, his biological samples were analyzed through a gene panel for skeletal dysplasias. A missense mutation not previously described in the literature was detected in the FLNB gene, affecting ~ 20% of the evaluated cells and, therefore, confirming the diagnosis ofmosaic AOI in the father. The molecular analysis of the father was crucial to suggest the diagnosis of AOI in the newborn, since she died early and there were no biological samples available.
Resumo A atelosteogênese tipo I (AOI) é uma displasia esquelética autossômica dominante causada por mutações no gene filamina B (FLNB) comachados clínicos clássicos e bem reconhecíveis. No entanto, pais afetados com um fenótipo mais leve, provavelmente commosaicismo somático, podem gerar uma prole comumfenótipomuito mais grave de AOI. No presente relato, descrevemos um recém-nascido do sexo feminino comAOI clássica, que levou à morte neonatal precoce, e cujo diagnóstico foi baseado em achados radiológicos pré-natais e no exame físico de seu genitor. Como o genitor apresentava deformidades em membros e assimetria corporal, que sugeriam mosaicismo somático, suas amostras biológicas foram analisadas por meio de um painel de genes para displasias esqueléticas. Umamutação missense, não descrita anteriormente na literatura, foi detectada no gene FLNB, afetando ~ 20% das células avaliadas, e, portanto, confirmando o diagnóstico de AOI em mosaico no genitor. A análise molecular realizada no genitor foi fundamental para sugerir o diagnóstico de AOI na recém-nascida, uma vez que esta morreu precocemente, e não havia amostras biológicas disponíveis.