ABSTRACT Urban agriculture (UA) has recently been pointed out as an important element in the discussion and practices of urban food security. This article seeks to discuss agricultural production and distribution in the city of São Paulo , considering the diversity of profiles that UA can assume. To this end, official databases were used to compute agricultural production. With regard to commercialization, information was collected from seven semi-structured interviews with farmers of the city of São Paulo between 2018 and 2020. The main findings indicate that there was an increase in agricultural practices in the city, encompassing a wide variety of commercialization channels. The opening of new markets, the development of public policies and public recognition were essential for the growth of agriculture in the city of São Paulo.
RESUMO A Agricultura Urbana (AU) tem sido apontada, mais recentemente, como elemento importante nos discursos e nas práticas que visam à segurança alimentar urbana. O presente artigo procurou discutir a produção agrícola do Município de São Paulo (MSP) e seu escoamento, considerando a diversidade de perfis que a AU pode assumir. Para tal, foi avaliada a produção agrícola em bases de dados oficiais. No que se refere à comercialização, foram coletadas informações em sete entrevistas semiestruturadas com agricultores do MSP entre 2018 e 2020. Os principais resultados encontrados indicam que houve um crescimento das práticas agropecuárias no município, acessando uma ampla variedade de canais de comercialização. A abertura de novos mercados, o desenvolvimento de políticas públicas e o reconhecimento público foram essenciais para o crescimento da agricultura no MSP.
Abstract Introduction One of the main issues in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients is infection, such as tuberculosis (TB). Of note, SLE patients are susceptible to pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. However, to our knowledge, this contagious disease was rarely reported in pediatric lupus population, particularly diffuse or miliary TB. Therefore, from January 1983 to December 2011, 5,635 patients were followed-up at our Pediatric Rheumatology Unit and 285 (5%) of them met the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for SLE. Case reports Four (1.4%) of our JSLE patients had disseminated TB and were described herein. All of them were female gender, received BCG vaccination and did not have a history of TB household contact. The median of current age at TB diagnosis and the period between JSLE and TB diagnosis were 17 years old (range 14-20) and 5.5 years (range 2-7), respectively. All patients developed miliary TB during the course of the disease. The median of SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) was 4 (2-16) and the patients were treated with immunosuppressive agents (glucocorticoid, azathioprine and/or intravenous cyclophosphamide). Two of them presented sepsis and TB diagnosis was only established at autopsy, especially with lungs, central nervous system and abdominal involvements. Anti-TB therapy (isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide) was indicated in the other two TB cases, however they deceased. Discussion Miliary TB is a rare and severe opportunist infection in pediatric lupus population. This study reinforces the importance of routine searches for TB in JSLE patients.
Resumo Introdução Um dos principais problemas no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico juvenil (LESJ) é a infecção, como a tuberculose (TB). É importante observar que pacientes com LES são suscetíveis à tuberculose pulmonar e extrapulmonar. No entanto, de acordo com o que se sabe, essa doença contagiosa é raramente relatada na população pediátrica com lúpus, particularmente a TB difusa ou miliar. De janeiro de 1983 a dezembro de 2011, 5.635 pacientes foram acompanhados na Unidade de Reumatologia Pediátrica; 285 deles (5%) preencheram os critérios de classificação para LES do American College of Rheumatology. Relatos de caso Quatro (1,4%) de nossos pacientes com LESJ tinham tuberculose disseminada e foram descritos neste estudo. Todos eram do sexo feminino, receberam a vacina BCG e não tinham história de contato domiciliar com a TB. A mediana da idade no momento do diagnóstico da TB e o período entre os diagnósticos de LES e tuberculose foram de 17 anos (variação de 14 a 20) e 5,5 anos (variação de dois a sete), respectivamente. Todas as pacientes desenvolveram tuberculose miliar durante o curso da doença. A mediana no SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) foi de 4 (2 a 16) e as pacientes foram tratadas com agentes imunossupressores (glicocorticoides, azatioprina e/ou ciclofosfamida intravenosa). Duas delas apresentaram sepse e o diagnóstico de tuberculose só foi determinado na necropsia, com envolvimento especialmente dos pulmões, do sistema nervoso central e do abdome. A terapia antituberculose (isoniazida, rifampicina e pirazinamida) foi indicada nos outros dois casos de TB; porém, as pacientes foram a óbito. Discussão A TB miliar é uma infecção oportunista rara e grave na população pediátrica com lúpus. Este estudo reforça a importância de pesquisas de rotina para TB em pacientes com LESJ.
The lack of planning in the urbanization process of big cities worldwide has produced numerous negative externalities, including the suppression of vegetation and green spaces. Multiple benefits have been reported on how urban vegetation promotes and influences environmental, social and economic factors, as well as people's health. This paper presents a series of studies focusing on the association between urban vegetation and human health, as well as a brief reflection on the importance of this issue in the city of São Paulo.
A falta de planejamento no processo de urbanização das grandes metrópoles tem produzido numerosas externalidades negativas, entre elas a supressão de sua cobertura vegetal e de áreas verdes. Inúmeros benefícios têm sido reportados sobre como a presença da vegetação no meio ambiente urbano favorece fatores ambientais, sociais e econômicos, influenciando na saúde da população. O presente trabalho busca apresentar uma série de estudos com enfoque na associação entre áreas verdes e saúde e também uma sucinta reflexão sobre a importância do assunto no município de São Paulo.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder of ciliary structure or function. It results in mucus accumulation and bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract which leads to chronic upper and lower airway infections, organ laterality defects, and fertility problems. We review the respiratory signs and symptoms of PCD, as well as the screening tests for and diagnostic investigation of the disease, together with details related to ciliary function, ciliary ultrastructure, and genetic studies. In addition, we describe the difficulties in diagnosing PCD by means of transmission electron microscopy, as well as describing patient follow-up procedures.
Discinesia ciliar primária (DCP) é uma doença genética que compromete a estrutura e/ou a função ciliar, causando retenção de muco e bactérias no trato respiratório e levando a infecções crônicas nas vias aéreas superiores e inferiores, defeitos de lateralidade visceral e problemas de fertilidade. Revisamos os sinais e sintomas respiratórios da DCP, os testes de triagem e a investigação diagnóstica, bem como detalhes relacionados ao estudo da função, ultraestrutura e genética ciliar. Descrevemos também as dificuldades em diagnosticar a DCP por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmissão, bem como o seguimento dos pacientes.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the immunophenotype of pulmonary TB granulomas from autopsied patients with tuberculosis (TB group) and from HIV patients with tuberculosis (TB/HIV group), and to identify the Mycobacterium species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. METHODS: Lung samples of 15 TB group patients and 23 TB/HIV group patients were selected. Histopathologic analyses and immunohistochemistry tests were performed to describe the granulomas and to detect the infectious agent (anti-BCG). CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD68 were evaluated to characterize the immnophenotype of the granulomas. Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed to identify the mycobacterium species. RESULTS: CD4 + T lymphocytes were the cells with highest density in the TB group, whereas CD68 cells exhibited the highest density in the TB/HIV group. Comparison between groups showed that the CD4 + T density was significantly higher in the TB patients; whereas, CD68 density was significantly higher in the TB/HIV patients. M. tuberculosis was identified in 8 cases of each group; M. avium was only found in one case of the TB/HIV group. CONCLUSION: With the advent of AIDS, the immunological profile of TB has changed. This may be associated with the depletion of CD4 + T lymphocytes in lung granulomas. M. tuberculosis was the major etiological agent of TB in both groups.
RESUMO OBJETIVO: Descrever a imunofenotipagem de granulomas TB pulmonar de pacientes autopsiados com tuberculose (grupo TB) e de pacientes infectados pelo HIV com tuberculose (grupo TB/HIV) e identificar as espécies de Mycobacterium em cadeia da polimerase utilizando reação PCR. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas amostras pulmonares de 15 pacientes do grupo TB e 23 pacientes do grupo TB/HIV. Realizamos Histopatológia e imuno-histoquímica para descrever os granulomas e para detectar o agente infeccioso (anti-BCG). Avaliamos CD4, CD8, CD20 e CD68 para caracterizar a imunofenotipagem dos granulomas e realizamos a reação PCR para identificar as espécies de micobactéria. RESULTADOS: linfócitos T CD4 + foram as células com densidade mais elevada no grupo de TB, ao passo que as células CD68 exibiram maior densidade no grupo TB/HIV. A comparação entre os grupos mostrou que a densidade de linfócitos T CD4 + foi significativamente maior nos pacientes com TB, ao passo que a densidade CD68 foi significativamente maior nos pacientes com TB/HIV. M. tuberculosis foi identificado em 8 casos de cada grupo; M. avium só foi encontrado em um caso do grupo TB/HIV. CONCLUSÃO: Com o advento da AIDS, o perfil imunológico da tuberculose se alterou. Isto pode estar associado com a depleção de linfócitos T CD4 + em granulomas pulmonares. M. tuberculosis foi o principal agente etiológico da tuberculose em ambos os grupos.
Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI) indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.
Objective: To investigate the number and rate of academic autopsies, general organization, educational and research in Brazilian academic services. Methods: Standardized questionnaires were sent to Brazilian medical schools (n=177) and active pathology residency programs (n=53) from March to June 2009. Data were collected for years 2003 to 2008. Results: Thirty-two academic services in 11 Brazilian states answered the survey. Twenty-one (65.6%) perform less than a hundred autopsies for natural causes and less than fifty pediatric or fetal autopsies/year. Twenty-four (75%) perform less than a hundred adult autopsies/year. Many institutions (46.9%) reported a drop in the number of autopsies in a six-year period. The total autopsy count and autopsy rate in 2008 ranged 1-632 (median = 80), and 0-66% (mean = 10.6%), respectively. A steady decrease in the total count of autopsies in a pool of 19 institutions was observed (p<0.01). Median autopsy rates have fallen from 19.3%, in 2003, to 10.6%, in 2008 (p=0.07). Significant discrepancies at autopsies led to changes in institutional healthcare practice in 37.5% of the services. The low number of autopsies was a limiting factor in undergraduate education for 25% of respondents. A minimum number of autopsies is required to complete the pathology residency program in 34.6% of the services. Conclusion: The total number and the rate of academic autopsies have decreased in Brazil between 2003 and 2008. The number of autopsies and the general organization of academic services must be enhanced to improve medical education, research, and the quality control of patient care.
Objetivo: Investigar o número e a taxa de autópsias acadêmicas, organização geral, ensino e pesquisa em serviços acadêmicos brasileiros. Métodos: Questionários padronizados enviados para escolas médicas brasileiras (n=177) e programas de residência em patologia ativos (n=53) de março a junho de 2009. Dados coletados referentes ao período de 2003 a 2008. Resultados: Trinta e dois serviços em 11 estados responderam à pesquisa. Vinte e um (65,6%) realizam menos de cem autópsias de causas naturais e menos de cinquenta autópsias fetais ou pediátricas/ano. Vinte e quatro (75%) realizam menos de cem autópsias de adultos/ano. Muitas instituições (46,9%) relataram queda no número de autópsias em seis anos. A contagem total e a taxa de autópsias em 2008 variaram, respectivamente, de 1 a 632 (mediana=80) e de 0 a 66% (média=10,6%). Foi observada uma redução contínua no total de autópsias em um grupo de 19 instituições (p<0,01). A mediana da taxa de autópsias caiu de 19,3%, em 2003, para 10,6%, em 2008 (p=0,07). Discrepâncias significativas observadas em autópsias levaram a mudanças na prática institucional de saúde em 37,5% dos serviços. O baixo número de autópsias foi limitante no ensino de graduação para 25% dos entrevistados. Um número mínimo de autópsias é necessário para completar o programa de residência em patologia em 34,6% dos serviços. Conclusão: O número total e a taxa de autópsias acadêmicas diminuíram no Brasil entre 2003 e 2008. O número de autópsias e organização geral dos serviços acadêmicos deve ser melhorado para fortalecer a educação médica, pesquisa e controle de qualidade prestado ao paciente.
OBJECTIVE: To verify the accordance of functional and morphometric parameters during the development of emphysema. METHODS: BALB/c mice received a nasal drop of either papain or saline solution and were studied after 1, 3, 15, 28, and 40 days. Functional parameters, such as airway resistance, tissue damping, and tissue elastance, were analyzed. To evaluate the structural changes and possible mechanisms involved in this disease, we measured the mean linear intercept, the volume proportions of elastic and collagen fibers, the number of macrophages, the numbers of cells expressing metalloprotease 12 and 8-isoprostane in lung parenchyma. RESULTS: We only observed decreases in tissue elastance and tissue damping on the 28th day, with a concomitant increase in the mean linear intercept, indicating the presence of emphysema. However, only the mean linear intercept values remained increased until the 40th day. The volume proportion of collagen fibers was increased from the 15th day to the 40th day, whereas the volume proportion of elastic fibers was only increased on the 40th day. The number of macrophages increased beginning on the 1st day. The expression of metalloproteinase 12 was increased from the 3rd day until the 40th day. However, 8-isoprostane expression was only increased on the 1st and 3rd days. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, morphometric parameters were found to be more reliable for detecting the presence of emphysema than the functional parameters measured by respiratory mechanics. Further investigations are necessary to understand how the extracellular matrix remodeling observed in the lung parenchyma could be involved in this process.
OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of urban, traffic-related, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on mice lung tumorigenesis under controlled exposure conditions. METHODS: Four groups of female Swiss mice were treated with intraperitonial injections of urethane and saline solution. Urethane was used to start the carcinogenesis process. The animals were housed in two chambers receiving filtered and polluted air. In the polluted air chamber, pollutant levels were low. After two months of exposure, the animals were euthanized and lung tumoral nodules were counted. RESULTS: Saline-treated animals showed no nodules. Urethane-treated animals showed 2.0+2.0 and 4.0+3.0 nodules respectively, in the filtered and non-filtered chambers (p = 0.02), thus showing experimental evidence of increased carcinogenic-induced lung cancer with increasing PM2.5 exposure. CONCLUSION: Our data support the concept that low levels of PM2.5 may increase the risk of developing lung tumors.
We report a previously healthy 36-year-old mole who developed a pulmonary syndrome caused by Hantavirus infection. He was admitted to an intensive care unit in shock and respiratory failure and died four hours after admission. Blood cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. This patient could be an index case that shows, for the first time, an association of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome with Staphylococcus aureus infection similar to what happens with other viruses.
INTRODUCTION: Mechanical ventilation with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves oxygenation and treats acute pulmonary failure. However, increased intrathoracic pressure may cause regional blood flow alterations that may contribute to mesenteric ischemia and gastrointestinal failure. We investigated the effects of different PEEP levels on mesenteric leukocyte-endothelial interactions. METHODS: Forty-four male Wistar rats were initially anesthetized (Pentobarbital I.P. 50mg/kg) and randomly assigned to one of the following groups: 1) NAIVE (only anesthesia; n=9), 2) PEEP 0 (PEEP of 0 cmH2O, n=13), 3) PEEP 5 (PEEP of 5 cmH2O, n=12), and 4) PEEP 10 (PEEP of 10 cmH2O, n=13). Positive end expiratory pressure groups were tracheostomized and mechanically ventilated with a tidal volume of 10 mL/kg, respiratory rate of 70 rpm, and inspired oxygen fraction of 1. Animals were maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. After two hours, laparotomy was performed, and leukocyte-endothelial interactions were evaluated by intravital microscopy. RESULTS: No significant changes were observed in mean arterial blood pressure among groups during the study. Tracheal peak pressure was smaller in PEEP 5 compared with PEEP 0 and PEEP 10 groups (11, 15, and 16 cmH2O, respectively; p<0.05). After two hours of MV, there were no differences among NAIVE, PEEP 0 and PEEP 5 groups in the number of rollers (118±9,127±14 and 147±26 cells/10minutes, respectively), adherent leukocytes (3±1,3±1 and 4±2 cells/100µm venule length, respectively), and migrated leukocytes (2±1,2±1 and 2±1 cells/5,000µm², respectively) at the mesentery. However, the PEEP 10 group exhibited an increase in the number of rolling, adherent and migrated leukocytes (188±15 cells / 10 min, 8±1 cells / 100 µm and 12±1 cells / 5,000 µm², respectively; p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: High intrathoracic pressure was harmful to mesenteric microcirculation in the experimental model of rats with normal lungs and stable systemic blood pressure, a finding that may have relevance for complications related to mechanical ventilation.