ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate, through magnetic resonance imaging, the occurrence of fatty degeneration of the trapezius in adult patients undergoing nerve transfer procedure, using the spinal accessory nerve. Methods: A total of 13 patients meeting the criteria of unilateral brachial plexus injury and more than one year of postoperative care after nerve transfer surgery underwent an MRI scan of the trapezius. A T1-weighted 3D sequence was used, with the IDEAL technique using 8.0 mm cut thickness, 8.0 mm cut spacing, TR of 100 ms, TE of 3.45 ms, flip angle of 10 degrees, 20 cuts, on the sagittal plane. The images of the upper, transverse and lower parts of the trapezius muscle were then classified according to the degree of fatty degeneration, compared with the contralateral side, using the Goutallier score. Results: For the upper trapezius there was a change of the degeneration state in 23% (p = 0.083), for the transverse section there was a change in 84.6% (p = 0.003), for the lower one there was a change in 92.3% (p = 0.002). Conclusion: The upper trapezius did not undergo significant degeneration after transfer. The lower and transverse trapezius suffered fatty degeneration in most patients, indicating severe functional impairment. Level of Evidence IV, Case series.
RESUMO Objetivo: Através de imagens de ressonância magnética, investigar a ocorrência de degeneração gordurosa no músculo trapézio em pacientes adultos submetidos a procedimento de transferência de nervo envolvendo o nervo espinal acessório. Métodos: 13 pacientes com lesão do plexo braquial unilateral e mais de um ano de cirurgia de transferência de nervo utilizando o nervo espinal acessório foram submetidos a exame de ressonância magnética do músculo trapézio. Foi obtida uma sequência 3D ponderada em T1, com a técnica IDEAL, espessura de corte de 8,0 mm, espaçamento entre os cortes de 8,0 mm, TR de 100 ms, TE de 3,45 ms, flip angle de 10 graus e 20 cortes, no plano sagital. As imagens das porções superior, transversa e inferior do músculo trapézio foram classificadas de acordo com o grau de degeneração gordurosa e comparadas com o lado contralateral, utilizando o score de Goutallier. Resultados: Para o trapézio superior houve mudança no estado de degeneração em 23% (p = 0,083), para o trapézio transverso houve mudança em 84,6% (p = 0,003), e para o trapézio inferior houve mudança em 92,3% (p = 0,002). Conclusão: O trapézio superior não sofreu degeneração significativa após transferência. Os trapézios inferiores e médios sofreram degeneração gordurosa na maioria dos pacientes, indicando comprometimento funcional severo. Nível de Evidência IV, Série de casos .
ABSTRACT Objective: Dupuytren’s disease is a genetic disorder related to the proliferation of myofibroblasts. The pluripotent property of stem cells present in adipose tissue inhibits myofibroblast proliferation. Our study sought to evaluate the effect of stem cell-rich fat grafts in patients that underwent limited fasciectomy. Methods: We studied 45 patients, in a single-blind, prospective, randomized clinical trial. All patients underwent limited fasciectomy. In one group, fat graft was injected. Results: The total passive extension deficit results did not exhibit a significant difference. Fat group exhibited worse functional score at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively, such as higher complication rates (43%), when compared with control group (8%), and more pain at 6 weeks follow-up. Conclusion: Fat grafting associated with limited fasciectomy promotes worse functional results compared to conventional limited fasciectomy in the short term. However, long-term results and recurrence rates should be further assessed. Level of Evidence II, Prospective comparative study.
RESUMO Objetivo: A moléstia de Dupuytren (MD) está associada a um distúrbio genético relacionado à proliferação de miofibroblastos. Acredita-se que a propriedade totipotente das células-tronco, presentes no tecido adiposo, seria capaz de inibir a formação dos miofibroblastos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do enxerto de gordura, rico em células-tronco, nos pacientes com MD, submetidos à fasciectomia parcial. Métodos: Estudamos 45 pacientes, em um ensaio clínico prospectivo, randomizado e cego. No grupo-controle, era realizada apenas a fasciectomia parcial. No grupo com gordura, era realizada a fasciectomia parcial e injetado o enxerto de gordura. Os desfechos foram avaliados pelo Déficit de Extensão Passiva Total (DEPT) e escore funcional Brief Michigan Hand Questionnaire (BMHQ). Resultados: Os resultados do déficit de extensão passiva total não apresentaram diferença significativa. O grupo com gordura apresentou pior escore funcional após 6 meses e 1 ano, como maiores taxas de complicações (43%) em comparação ao grupo controle (8%) e mais dor com 6 semanas de seguimento. Conclusão: O uso de enxerto de gordura associado à fasciectomia parcial promove piores resultados funcionais em comparação com a fasciectomia parcial convencional, a curto prazo. No entanto, a recidiva e os resultados a longo prazo devem ser avaliados. Nível de Evidência II, Estudo prospectivo comparativo.
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate if the levels of serum total protein and serum albumin are risk factors for surgical complications of free flap limb reconstruction. Methods: Consecutive inclusion of all patients undergoing microsurgical flaps for limb reconstruction of complex injuries. We recorded epidemiological and laboratory data, including total proteins and fractions, for descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: Our study analyzed one microsurgical flap from 35 patients that underwent complex injuries of the limbs. In total, 23 patients were men, and mean age of all patients was 35 years. After statistical analysis, no influence of pre or postoperative hypoalbuminemia was observed on the incidence of complications. Patients with hypoalbuminemia had a higher length of stay than those with normal albumin levels (p = 0.008). Conclusion: We observed that 71% of patients had hypoalbuminemia in early postoperative period and we suggest a nutritional support for patients requiring complex traumatic limb reconstruction. Hypoalbuminemia in patients subjected to microsurgical flaps for the treatment of complex traumatic limb injuries did not influence the complications that required surgical reintervention; However, it was associated with prolonged hospital stay. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective study.
RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a influência dos níveis totais de proteína sérica e albumina como fator de risco para complicações de retalhos microcirúrgicos para reconstrução de membros. Métodos: Inclusão consecutiva de todos os pacientes submetidos a retalhos microcirúrgicos para reconstrução de membros de lesões complexas. Foram registrados dados epidemiológicos e laboratoriais, incluindo proteínas e frações totais, para fins estatísticos descritivos e analíticos. Resultados: 35 retalhos microcirúrgicos foram estudados em 35 pacientes com lesões complexas dos membros. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 35 anos, e 23 pacientes eram do sexo masculino. Após análise estatística, não foi observada influência da hipoalbuminemia pré ou pós-operatória na incidência de complicações. Pacientes com hipoalbuminemia permaneceram mais tempo hospitalizados do que aqueles com níveis normais de albumina (p = 0,008). Conclusão: Observamos 71% dos pacientes com hipoalbuminemia no início do período pós-operatório e sugerimos fornecer suporte nutricional para pacientes que necessitam de reconstrução traumática complexa dos membros. A presença de hipoalbuminemia em pacientes submetidos a retalhos microcirúrgicos para o tratamento de lesões traumáticas complexas nos membros não influenciou a presença de complicações que exigiam reintervenção cirúrgica, mas foi associada ao tempo de hospitalização prolongado. Nível de Evidência II, Estudo retrospectivo .
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of the design of a femoral vascular loop with anastomosis in the femoral artery of rabbits on the presence of flow (patency) after seven days. Methods: A total of 39 rabbits underwent arteriovenous microanastomosis using the microsurgical technique. Two loop designs were used: one circular and the other angled. The parameters evaluated were presence or absence of flow, signs of hemolysis and hemodynamic changes. Results: After seven days, flow was present in 68% of the angled loops and 75% of the circular loops (p > 0.05). There was a significant intragroup decrease in pCO2 and a significant increase in pH. For the other parameters evaluated, no significant differences between the two loop models were found. Conclusions: A reproducible vascular loop model was shown. There was no significant difference between the two vascular loop models about the presence of flow after seven days. Level of Evidence V, Animal experimental study.
RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar, em coelhos, qual é a influência do desenho da alça de veia femoral com anastomose na artéria femoral, na presença de fluxo (patência) após sete dias. Método: 39 coelhos foram submetidos à microanastomose arteriovenosa com técnica microcirúrgica. As alças foram acomodadas em dois desenhos, um circular e outro, o mais alongado possível sem dobras na alça. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: presença ou não de fluxo, sinais de hemólise, alterações hemodinâmicas. Resultados: após sete dias, o fluxo estava presente em 68% das alças anguladas e em 75% das alças circulares (p > 0,05). Houve, intragrupo, diminuição estatisticamente significante da pCO 2 e aumento estatisticamente significante do pH. Não houve diferença estatística no restante dos parâmetros avaliados entre os dois modelos de alça. Conclusões: apresentamos um modelo reprodutível de alça vascular. Não houve diferença estatística quanto à presença de fluxo após sete dias nos dois modelos de alça vascular. Nível de Evidência V, Estudo experimental em animais.
Abstract Arthroscopy is a surgical technique whose indication for wrist injuries has grown in recent years. Athletes are subject to traumatic injury to the wrist due to training overload or the intensity of the activity during competition. The need of a quick return to sports practice makes arthroscopy a very useful minimally invasive technique in these situations. The authors present indications of sports-related injuries to the wrist that can be treated by arthroscopy. A literature review is also presented.
Resumo A artroscopia é uma técnica cirúrgica que tem sido cada vez mais usada para a abordagem de lesões no punho. Atletas estão sujeitos a lesões traumáticas no punho devido à sobrecarga de treinamento ou à intensidade da atividade em competição. A necessidade de retornar o mais breve possível à pratica esportiva faz da artroscopia uma técnica minimamente invasiva muito útil nessas situações. Os autores apresentam as principais indicações de tratamento de lesões esportivas por artroscopia. Foi feita uma revisão da literatura.
ABSTRACT Objective: Although our knowledge of bone reconstruction through microsurgery has increased, the vascularized fibula flap remains one of the most difficult free flap reconstructions to perform, and complications remain a challenge. The incidence of obesity is increasing and is associated with higher rates of free flap complications, which can lead to disastrous results. Since there is no consensus in literature regarding the influence of obesity on free flap outcomes in orthopedic surgeries that require segmental bone reconstruction, the objective of this study was to determine whether obesity increases the risk of post-operative complications (Clavien-Dindo grade III) after free vascularized fibular flap surgery. Methods: A cohort study was conducted in all patients undergoing free flap limb reconstructions between July 2014 and July 2018. Patients were separated in two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): non-obese and obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2). Results: Twenty-three free vascularized fibular flaps were studied. The indications included trauma in 13, tumors in 7, and congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia in 3. Obese patients were associated with an increase in surgical complications (p=0.038). During the final follow-up, consolidation was obtained in 17 patients (74%). Conclusion: Obesity is a risk factor for complications in free vascularized fibular flap surgery. Level of evidence IV, original article.
RESUMO Objetivo: Apesar do crescente conhecimento em reconstrução óssea por meio de microcirurgia, o retalho livre de fíbula vascularizada ainda permanece como uma das reconstruções mais difíceis de ser executada, e suas complicações ainda são um desafio. A incidência da obesidade tem aumentado e está associada a taxas mais altas de complicações de retalhos livres, o que pode levar a resultados desastrosos. Uma vez que não há consenso na literatura a respeito da influência da obesidade nos desfechos dos retalhos livre em cirurgias ortopédicas que requeiram reconstrução de segmento ósseo, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a obesidade aumenta o risco de complicações pós-operatórias (Clavien-Dindo grau III) após a cirurgia de retalho livre de fíbula vascularizada. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte transversal, com a inclusão de todos os pacientes submetidos à reconstrução de membros com retalho livre de fíbula vascularizada, entre julho de 2014 e julho de 2018. Os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos, com base no índice de massa corporal: não obesos e obesos (no índice de massa corporal ≥ 30 kg/m2). Resultados: Foram analisados 23 retalhos livres de fíbula vascularizada. As indicações foram trauma em 13 casos, tumor em sete e pseudoartrose congênita da tíbia em três. Pacientes obesos foram associados a aumento nas complicações cirúrgicas (p = 0,038). No final do acompanhamento, a consolidação óssea foi obtida em 17 pacientes (74%). Conclusão: A obesidade é um fator de risco para complicações no retalho livre de fíbula vascularizada. Nível de evidência IV, artigo original.
ABSTRACT Objective: To assess and compare radiographic, tomographic and functional pre and postoperative parameters of patients submitted to treatment of nonunion of the scaphoid waist with locked plate for scaphoid. Methods: This is a case series of scaphoid waist nonunion, operated from March 2017 to March 2018 at the Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology of HCFMUSP, using the technique of Fisk-Fernandez and osteosynthesis with locked plate for scaphoid APTUS®Hand from Medartis. The patients were submitted to radiographs, computed tomography and functional evaluation by the occupational therapy team in the pre and postoperative periods. Results: There was consolidation of the scaphoid waist nonunion in all cases, improvement in the parameters of carpal alignment in the imaging examinations, but functionally we observed reduction of the range of motion and grip strength in relation to the contralateral limb. Conclusions: The treatment of the scaphoid waist nonunion with locked plate was effective, with a high index of consolidation and improvement of the carpal alignment in the imaging tests, although with a reduction in the range of motion and grip strength in relation to the contralateral limb when evaluated with 12 weeks postoperatively. Level of Evidence IV, Case series.
RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar e comparar parâmetros radiográficos, tomográficos e funcionais pré e pós-operatórios de pacientes submetidos ao tratamento de pseudoartrose do colo do escafoide com placa bloqueada para escafoide. Métodos: Esta é uma série de casos de pseudoartrose do colo do escafoide, operados no período de março de 2017 a março de 2018 no Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do HCFMUSP, utilizando-se a técnica de Fisk-Fernandez e osteossíntese com placa bloqueada para escafoide APTUS®Hand da Medartis. Os pacientes foram submetidos a radiografias, tomografia computadorizada e avaliação funcional pela equipe de terapia ocupacional no pré e pós-operatório. Resultados: Houve consolidação da pseudoartrose do colo do escafoide em todos os casos e melhora nos parâmetros de alinhamento carpal nos exames de imagem, porém, funcionalmente, observamos redução da amplitude de movimento e força de preensão em relação ao membro contralateral. Conclusão: O tratamento da pseudoartrose do colo do escafoide com placa bloqueada se mostrou efetivo, com elevado índice de consolidação e melhora do alinhamento carpal nos exames de imagem, embora com redução da amplitude de movimento e força de preensão em relação ao membro contralateral, quando avaliados com 12 semanas de pós-operatório. Nível de Evidência IV, Série de casos.
ABSTRACT Objective The medial femoral condyle corticoperiosteal flap is irrigated by the descending genicular artery, and when this is absent, by the superior medial genicular artery. The descending genicular artery divides into the muscular, saphenous, and osteoarticular branches. The objective of this study was to describe the variables involved in the dissection of the medial femoral condyle flap. Methods Thirty thighs from 20 cadavers were dissected and the following variables were recorded: age, height, weight, thigh length, presence of the descending genicular artery, whether the saphenous branch originated from the descending genicular artery, the length of the branches originating from the descending genicular artery, and the diameter of the descending genicular artery and the vena comitans. Results The descending genicular artery was present in 93.3% of the specimens (28/30). The saphenous branch originated from this artery in 76.7% of the dissections (23/70). The mean distance between the origin of the descending genicular artery and the knee joint was 13.4 cm (±١.4), the mean length of the descending genicular artery was 7.5 cm (±1.5), the mean diameter of the descending genicular artery was 1.9 mm (±٠.3), and the mean diameter of the vena comitans was 1.7 mm (±٠.3). Conclusion The vascularized medial femoral condyle is a versatile option for reconstruction of musculoskeletal injuries. It allows transference of bone associated with muscle and skin, which are each nourished by independent branches. Level of Evidence IV; Case series.
RESUMO Objetivo O retalho ósseo vascularizado do côndilo femoral medial deve sua irrigação à artéria genicular descendente e, na ausência desta, à artéria genicular superior medial. A artéria genicular descendente comumente ramifica-se em: ramo muscular, safeno e osteoarticular. O estudo teve por objetivo analisar as variáveis relativas à dissecção do retalho ósseo do côndilo femoral medial. Métodos Foram dissecados 30 joelhos (20 cadáveres), registrando-se: idade; estatura; peso; comprimento da coxa; presença da artéria genicular descendente; se o ramo safeno tem origem na artéria genicular descendente; comprimento dos ramos da artéria genicular descendente e os diâmetros da artéria genicular descendente e veia comitante. Resultados A artéria genicular descendente esteve presente em 93,3% dos espécimes (28/30). O ramo safeno originou-se da artéria genicular descendente em 76,7% das dissecções (23/70). Distância entre origem da artéria genicular descendente e interlinha articular = 13,4 (±1,4) cm, comprimento da artéria genicular descendente = 7,5 (±1,5) cm, diâmetro da artéria genicular descendente = 1,9 (±0,3) mm, diâmetro da veia comitante = 1,7 (±0,3) mm. Conclusão O retalho ósseo vascularizado do côndilo femoral medial mostrou-se a opção versátil para reconstrução de lesões do sistema músculo-esquelético. Permite a elevação de retalho ósseo associado à pele e tecido muscular, cada qual nutrido por ramos independentes. Nível de Evidência IV; Série de casos.
OBJECTIVES: Negative-pressure wound therapy has been widely adopted to reduce the complexity of treating a broad range of acute and chronic wounds. However, its cost is high. The objective of this study was to evaluate the following two different methods of negative-pressure wound therapy in terms of healing time: a low-cost method of negative-pressure wound therapy (a pressure stabilizer device connected to a hospital wall-vacuum system with a gauze-sealed dressing, USP) and the standard of care (vacuum-assisted closure, VAC). METHODS: This is a randomized, controlled, non-inferiority, unblinded trial. Patients admitted with complex injuries to a trauma center in a public referral hospital who were indicated for orthopedic surgery were randomized to a USP or VAC group. The primary outcome was the time required to achieve a “ready for surgery condition”, which was defined as a wound bed with healthy granulation tissue and without necrosis or purulent secretion. Wound bed area contraction, granulation tissue growth and the direct costs of the dressings were secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Variation in area and granulation tissue growth were essentially the same between the systems, and healing time was equal between the groups (p=0.379). In both systems, serial debridement increased wound area (p=0.934), and granulation tissue was also increased (p=0.408). The mean treatment cost was US$ 15.15 in the USP group and US$ 872.59 in the VAC group. CONCLUSIONS: For treating complex traumatic injuries, USP was non-inferior to and less expensive than VAC.
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the histological changes observed in venous grafts subjected to arterial blood flow as a function of the duration of the postoperative period to optimize their use in free flap reconstructions. METHOD: Twenty-five rats (7 females and 18 males) underwent surgery. Surgeries were performed on one animal per week. Five weeks after the first surgery, the same five animals were subjected to an additional surgery to assess the presence or absence of blood flow through the vascular loop, and samples were collected for histological analysis. This cycle was performed five times. RESULTS: Of the rats euthanized four to five weeks after the first surgery, no blood flow was observed through the graft in 80% of the cases. In the group euthanized three weeks after the first surgery, no blood flow was observed in 20% of the cases. In the groups euthanized one to two weeks after the first surgery, blood flow through the vascular loop was observed in all animals. Moreover, intimal proliferation tended to increase with the duration of the postoperative period. Two weeks after surgery, intimal proliferation increased slightly, whereas strong intimal proliferation was observed in all rats evaluated five weeks after surgery. CONCLUSION: Intimal proliferation was the most significant change noted in venous grafts as a function of the duration of the postoperative period and was directly correlated with graft occlusion. In cases in which vascular loops are required during free flap reconstruction, both procedures should preferably be performed during the same surgery.
Objective:To compare the functional results of ankle fractures treated with metallic and absorbable plates. Twenty patients were randomized into two groups (metallic and absorbable implant groups) and followed prospectively. In the immediate postoperative period, patients were immobilized with plaster casts for one week, which was replaced by a removable cast for another four weeks. Partial weight-bearing was allowed after three weeks, and full weight-bearing after six weeks. Functional recovery was similar in both groups. At six months, three patients in the metallic group complained of local pain, and had their implants removed. One patient in the absorbable group exhibited early dehiscence of the suture and underwent debridement and suturing with good evolution. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score was similar between the two groups after six and nine months of follow-up. The absorbable implants showed clinical and functional results that were similar to those of metallic implants. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study.
Objective: To demonstrate the importance of performing early shoulder tomography in patients with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP).Methods: This series of cases retrospective study with level evidence IV was conducted by consulting 76 patient's medical records with OBPP divided into three age groups: ≤12 months, 13 to 24 months and ≥ 25 months. The patients were classified according to gender, affected side, type of paralysis according to Narakas classification, and by computed tomography, according to the Waters scale.Results: The association between the age groups with Waters classification was statistically significant (p=0,006), showing that patients in the group aged less than 12 months and in the group aged between 12 and 24 months had a relevant correlation between the physical examination and Waters > III when compared to patients from groups aged 25 months or older.Conclusion: This study shows a correlation between the findings in the physical examination and severe dysplasia on the shoulder of children under 24 months of age, justifying the early tomographic shoulder exam in order to achieve a better follow-up and a consider a more aggressive approach in the treatment of OBPP affected children. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of wrist ligament and cartilage associated fractures of the distal radius, through arthroscopy, correlating with AO/ASIF classification. METHODS: Thirty patients aged between 20 and 50 years old, with closed fracture from groups B and C according to AO/ASIF classification were selected. All of them were submitted to wrist arthroscopy to address intra-articular injuries and reduction and osteosynthesis of the fracture. RESULTS: A high incidence of intra-articular injuries was noticed, and 76.6% of them presented injury of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, 36.6% of the intrinsic scapholunate ligament, 6.6% of the intrinsic triquetrolunate ligament, and 33% articular cartilage injury larger than three millimeters. Patients with fractures from type C according to AO/ASIF classification presented a higher incidence of ligament injuries. CONCLUSION: There is no relationship between the presence of chondral injury and the AO/ASIF classification of the fractures in the cases reported in this study. Level of Evidence III, Non Randomized Controlled Trial.
OBJECTIVE: To describe our pioneer national experience with 11 patients with soft tissue defects in the distal 1/3 of the leg, ankle and forefoot treated with extensor digitorum brevis muscle flap (EDB).METHODS: Between November 2009 and July 2012 11 patients were operated with the flap technique. We operated nine men and two women aged between 10 and 66 years. The surgical indications were acute trauma in four patients and post-traumatic osteomyelitis in seven patients. The small defects were covered ranging from 3x3 to 6x3 cm. The patch was applied with proximal stalk in most cases.RESULTS: Complete healing and infectious cure were obtained in all cases, despite one loss.CONCLUSION: The EDB flap is a feasible and safe technique to repair foot, ankle and distal leg losses. Suffering, dehiscence and delayed healing of the EDB end flap donor area may, however, occur. L-shaped incisions should be avoided for muscle lifting. Level of Evidence IV, Case series.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare two four-strand techniques: the traditional Strickland and cruciate techniques. METHODS: Thirty-eight Achilles tendons were removed from 19 rabbits and were assigned to two groups based on suture technique (Group 1, Strickland suture; Group 2, cruciate repair). The sutured tendons were subjected to constant progressive distraction using a universal testing machine (Kratos®). Based on data from the instrument, which were synchronized with the visualized gap at the suture site and at the time of suture rupture, the following data were obtained: maximum load to rupture, maximum deformation or gap, time elapsed until failure, and stiffness. RESULTS: In the statistical analysis, the data were parametric and unpaired, and by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the sample distribution was normal. By Student's t-test, there was no significant difference in any of the data: the cruciate repair sutures had slightly better mean stiffness, and the Strickland sutures had longer time-elapsed suture ruptures and higher average maximum deformation. CONCLUSIONS: The cruciate and Strickland techniques for flexor tendon sutures have similar mechanical characteristics in vitro.