Objective The aim of the present study was to determine state anxiety following radical treatment for localized prostate cancer (PCa), and the impact of trait anxiety on psychological well-being in affected patients. Material and Methods The present study was a cross-sectional survey of 70 men with localized PCa performed between February 2012 and July 2012. Of those, 21, 25, and 24 patients were treated by radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP), permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB), and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), respectively. State anxiety, trait anxiety, and general health were assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and 8 Items Short Form Health Survey (SF-8). Results The rate of very high and high state anxiety in patients who received RRP was 47.6%, while that in patients who received PPB and EBRT was 40.0% and 37.5%, respectively. In contrast, the rate of very high and high trait anxiety in the RRP group was much lower (23.7%). Trait anxiety showed a high correlation with state anxiety and the mental health component summary of SF-8 (correlation coefficient=0.715, -0.504). Conclusions Trait anxiety was associated with the degree of state anxiety regarding treatments for PCa, followed by change in state anxiety, which might have effects on psychological well-being. Information regarding state anxiety as a consequence of treatments and trait anxiety measurement tool are important considerations for treatment decision-making in newly diagnosed PCa patients.
The article reviews the historical background and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and olfactory reference disorder, and describes the proposals of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders related to these categories. This paper examines the possible classification of BDD symptoms in ICD-10. Four different possible diagnoses are found (hypochondriacal disorder, schizotypal disorder, delusional disorder, or other persistent delusional disorder). This has led to significant confusion and lack of clear identification in ICD-10. Olfactory reference disorder can also be classified as a delusional disorder in ICD-10, but there is no diagnosis for non-delusional cases. The Working Group reviewed the classification and diagnostic criteria of BDD in DSM-5, as well as cultural variations of BDD and olfactory reference disorder that include Taijin Kyofusho. The Working Group has proposed the inclusion of both BDD and olfactory reference disorder in ICD-11, and has provided diagnostic guidelines and guidance on differential diagnosis. The Working Group's proposals for ICD-11 related to BDD and olfactory reference disorder are consistent with available global evidence and current understanding of common mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and resolve considerable confusion inherent in ICD-10. The proposals explicitly recognize cultural factors. They are intended to improve clinical utility related to appropriate identification, treatment, and resource allocation related to these disorders.