Abstract: Leprosy in children under 15 years of age is a serious public health problem. In this retrospective case series conducted in a Brazilian reference center (2004-2012), we found 18 cases with a mean age of 10.0±3.6 years of age and 16.6% between 0-5 years of age. Almost 56% of the cases were female, with a median time between the first symptoms and diagnosis of 11 months (4-24); 77.8% reported household contact with leprosy patients. Upon hospital admission, 66.7% presented mostly skin symptoms, while 27.8% presented a degree 2 disability. Most were classified as multibacillary (66.7%). Half of the sample developed a reaction (predominantly type 1) during the follow-up period, while 22.2% developed a late disability.
Abstract: Pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPD) include a spectrum of diseases with different clinical aspects, but with similar histopathological features. Specific clinical findings allow the division of PPD in variants. Schamberg's disease is the most common. Treatment is sometimes ineffective and recurrences are common. There are reports of patients who responded well to the use of colchicine. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman, previously healthy, with a history of onset of asymptomatic lesions in legs. She presented purpuric skin eruptions and brownish stains diffusely distributed in the lower limbs. Biopsy was compatible with PPD. We decided for the introduction of colchicine, with good clinical response. The patient has been followed on outpatient basis for ten months without recurrence.
Abstract: Few studies have described therapeutic options in brachioradial pruritus. We describe a cross-sectional study of brachioradial pruritus patients treated in an outpatient unit. We reviewed medical records and interviewed brachioradial pruritus patients without indication for decompressive surgery, in order to access the perceptions of intensity of pruritus prior to treatment and response to therapy. We found that antidepressants and anticonvulsants were the most frequently prescribed drugs. Best reductions in pruritus were associated with its highest intensities prior to treatment, and with longer periods of therapy.
Abstract: This is a cross-sectional study, conducted from May to November/2014, in a dermatology reference unit, through review of medical records and interviews. In a sample of 49 patients with brachioradial pruritus, we observed higher prevalence of Caucasian (81.6%) and women (73.5 %), with a mean age of 56.1 years. Pruritus occurred in the topography of brachioradialis muscle in 87.8% of cases; 59.2% of the sample reported worsening of pruritus with sun exposure; the mean intensity of this symptom before treatment was 8.63. Therapy effectiveness was described as "very good/good" in 79.2% of cases, and for 55.3% relapses were categorized as "uncommon".
We conducted a transversal retrospective study with secondary data collection from 25 cases of sporotrichosis, treated at a teaching unit in inner São Paulo (Brazil), between the years 2003-2013. We found that the prevalence was higher in men (72%), rural workers (44%) and those living in rural areas (60%), with an average age of 42.48 years. The median between the onset of lesions and diagnosis was six weeks. Lesions predominated in the upper limbs (92%), and were classified as lymphocutaneous (80%) and fixed cutaneous (20%) forms. Clinical cure was observed in 62.5% of the cases treated with potassium iodide and 100% of cases treated with itraconazole.
Exacerbation of the immune response against Mycobacterium leprae can lead to neuritis, which is commonly treated via immunosuppression with corticosteroids. Early neurolysis may be performed concurrently, especially in young patients with a risk of functional sequelae. We report the case of a young patient experienced intense pain in the left elbow one year after the treatment of tuberculoid-tuberculoid leprosy. The pain was associated with paresthesias in the ulnar edge and left ulnar claw. After evaluation, the diagnosis was changed to borderline tuberculoid leprosy accompanied with neuritis of the left ulnar nerve. Early neurolysis resulted in rapid reduction of the pain and recovery of motor function.
Chromoblastomycosis is one of the most frequent deep mycoses found in rural populations. This cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study was conducted with cases of chromoblastomycosis diagnosed throughout 20 years. A higher prevalence was observed among White male rural workers, with an average age of 59.69 years. Median time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 156 months. Lesions were predominantly located on the lower limbs; 34% of cases reported previous trauma. The most common associated symptoms were itching, pain and burning sensation. Mycological examination was positive in 91% of cases and Fonsecaea pedrosoi was the most prevalent etiologic agent.
AbstractThe infection by Mycobacterium marinum in humans is relatively uncommon. When it occurs, it mainly affects the skin, usually with a chronic, indolent and benign evolution. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, and a significant delay may be observed between the first symptoms to the final diagnosis. This present case reports a M. marinum infection in an immunocompetent patient that had a chronic undiagnosed injury on the dominant hand for at least five years. The patient had several medical consultations, without proper suspicion, hampering adequate diagnostic investigation. Histopathology detected tuberculoid granulomas, but showed no acid-fast bacilli. The culture in appropriate medium and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction enzyme analysis (PRA)-hsp65 confirmed the diagnosis. Treatment with clarithromycin (1 g/day) for three months was effective. Although uncommon, this infection is a contact zoonosis. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to be aware of this diagnosis and properly guide preventable measures to professionals that are in risk group.
BACKGROUND: Chronic leg ulcer may have an impact on patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the impact of leg ulcers on patient's quality of life using the Dermatology Life Quality Index and to define the main factors correlated with this perception. METHOD: Cross-sectional, non-probabilistic sampling study. We included patients with chronic leg ulcers being treated for at least 3 months. A sociodemographic and clinical survey was conducted to assess the profile of the ulcers. We administered a screening for depressive symptoms and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. We performed a descriptive statistical analysis, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney test for categorical data, Pearson for numeric variables, and multiple regression for categorical data. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were assessed. Their mean age was 61.78 years. Venous ulcers (48.8%) were the most prevalent. Seventy-three percent of the sample perceived no impact/low impact on quality of life in the past week, and 26.8% perceived moderate/high impact. A multiple regression analysis identified the causes of lesion, pain related to the ulcers, time of onset, and severity of the depressive symptoms as the variables that had an influence on quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the sample perceived low or no impact of the condition on the quality of the life. The variables etiology of the lesion (p<0.001), pain related to the ulcers (p=0.001), time of onset (p=0.006), and severity of the depressive symptoms (p<0.001) had an influence on the quality of life, suggesting the need for further studies with more robust designs to confirm the causal relationship between these characteristics and quality of life.
FUNDAMENTOS: Acne é dermatose comum que acomete ambos os gêneros e todas as faixas etárias. Mulheres apresentam diferentes padrões clínicos da doença, além de frequente persistência da acne após a adolescência. OBJETIVO: Analisar características clínicas e epidemiológicas associadas às diferentes faixas etárias acometidas por acne feminina. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo mulheres com diagnóstico de acne, atendidas em ambulatório de dermatologia geral. Variáveis relacionadas à doença e às pacientes foram avaliadas com o emprego de questionário padronizado. RESULTADOS: Avaliaram-se 103 pacientes, cuja idade média na época da consulta foi 21,7 ± 7,3 anos. Definiram-se dois subgrupos com idade de corte de 21 anos e idades médias de 15,8 ± 2,3 e 28,0 ± 5,1 anos. Houve correlação entre a duração do quadro e a idade das pacientes na consulta (R = 0,7). Observaram-se diferenças entre os grupos nas frequências de uso de contraceptivo oral combinado (OR = 48,1), lesões no colo (OR = 11,6), lesões no dorso (OR = 0,2), predominância na topografia superior da face (OR = 0,1) e idade de início das lesões (OR = 1,8). No grupo de mulheres adultas, 80% relataram início do quadro antes dos 20 anos. CONCLUSÕES: Identificaram-se padrões clínicos cronológicos e topográficos que caracterizaram a acne feminina em diferentes faixas etárias, alertando para a importância da abordagem diagnóstica e terapêutica individualizada.
BACKGROUND: Acne is a frequent skin disease that occurs in both sexes and all age-groups. Women present several clinical disease patterns; moreover, persistence after adolescence is common. OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with different age-groups affected by acne in women. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving female patients diagnosed with acne, at a general dermatology outpatient clinic. Variables related to disease and patients were assessed through a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: One hundred and three women were assessed. The average age of patients at the time of the consultation was 21.7 ± 7.3 years. Two groups were defined (cut-off age of 21 years), with means of 15.8 ± 2.3 and 28.0 ± 5.1 years. There was correlation between disease duration and current age (R=0.7). There were group differences among frequencies of covariables: combined oral contraceptive (OR=48.1), lesions located on upper chest (OR=11.6), lesions on upper dorsum (OR=0.2), predominance on upper half of face (OR=0.1) and age at disease onset (OR=1.8). Among adult women, 80% reported acne onset before 20 years of age. CONCLUSION: Chronologic and topographic patterns of female acne in different age-groups were defined, reinforcing the importance of an individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approach.