RESUMO Os tumores renais pediátricos correspondem a aproximadamente 7% de todos os tumores infantis, sendo o mais frequente o tumor de Wilms (TW). Crianças com TW são geralmente tratadas seguindo dois distintos protocolos terapêuticos (COG ou SIOP), sendo que no último, os pacientes recebem tratamento quimioterápico pré-operatório. Ambos apresentam sobrevida global em cinco anos em torno de 90%. TW é geneticamente heterogêneo, apresentando baixa prevalência de alterações somáticas conhecidas, com cerca de 30% dos casos apresentando mutações em genes conhecidos e um alto grau de heterogeneidade genética intratumoral (HGIT). Além de potencialmente ter um impacto sobre o desfecho clínico dos pacientes, a HGIT pode interferir na busca de marcadores moleculares que estão sendo testados prospectivamente pelos grupos COG e Siop. Nesta revisão, apresentamos a proposta do atual estudo Umbrella Siop 2017/Grupo de Tumores Renais Brasileiros (GTRB), que orienta a coleta de três diferentes regiões do tumor para melhor avaliar possíveis marcadores moleculares, bem como para compreender a biologia do TW.
SUMMARY Childhood renal tumors account for ~7% of all childhood cancers, and most cases are embryonic Wilms’ tumors (WT). Children with WT are usually treated by either COG or SIOP. The later treats the children using preoperative chemotherapy, but both have around 90% of overall survival in five years. WT is a genetically heterogeneous group with a low prevalence of known somatic alterations. Only around 30% of the cases present mutation in known genes, and there is a relatively high degree of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity (ITGH). Besides potentially having an impact on the clinical outcome of patients, ITGH may interfere with the search for molecular markers that are prospectively being tested by COG and SIOP. In this review, we present the proposal of the current UMBRELLA SIOP Study 2017/Brazilian Renal Tumor Group that requires the multi-sampling collection of each tumor to better evaluate possible molecular markers, as well as to understand WT biology
Objective: Cocaine use disorders (CUDs) represent a major public health problem in many countries. To better understand the interaction between the environmental modulations and phenotype, the aim of the present study was to investigate the DNA methylation pattern of CUD patients, who had concomitant cocaine and crack dependence, and healthy controls. Methods: We studied DNA methylation profiles in the peripheral blood of 23 CUD patients and 24 healthy control subjects using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. Results: Comparison between CUD patients and controls revealed 186 differentially methylated positions (DMPs; adjusted p-value [adjP] < 10-5) related to 152 genes, with a subset of CpGs confirmed by pyrosequencing. DNA methylation patterns discriminated CUD patients and control groups. A gene network approach showed that the EHMT1, EHMT2, MAPK1, MAPK3, MAP2K1, and HDAC5 genes, which are involved in transcription and chromatin regulation cellular signaling pathways, were also associated with cocaine dependence. Conclusion: The investigation of DNA methylation patterns may contribute to a better understanding of the biological mechanisms involved in CUD.
OBJECTIVES: Bone cancers occur frequently in children, adolescents, and young adults aging 15 to 29 years. Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are the most frequent subtypes in this population. The aim of this study was to describe incidence and mortality trends of bone cancers among Brazilian children, adolescents and young adults. METHODS: Incidence information was obtained from 23 population-based cancer registries. Mortality data were extracted from the Atlas of Cancer Mortality from 1979 to 2013. Specific and adjusted rates per million were analyzed according to gender, morphology and age at diagnosis. Median rates were used as a measure of central tendency. Joinpoint regression was applied to analyze trends. RESULTS: Median incidence rates were 5.74 and 11.25 cases per million in children and young adults respectively. Osteosarcoma in the 15-19 years aged group had the highest incidence rates. Stable incidence rates were observed among five registries in 0-14 year's age group. Four registries had a decreased incidence trend among adolescents and young adults. Median mortality rates were 1.22 and 5.07 deaths per million in children and young adults respectively. Increased mortality was observed on the North and Northeast regions. Decreased mortality trends were seen in the South (children) and Southeast (adolescents and young adults). CONCLUSION: Osteosarcoma and Ewing Sarcoma are the most incident bone cancers in all Brazilian regions. Bone cancers showed incidence and mortality patterns variation within the geographic regions and across age groups, although not significant. Despite limitations, it is crucial to monitor cancer epidemiology trends across geographic Brazilian regions.