Abstract A 72-year-old woman was admitted for acute heart failure. The echocardiography revealed moderate depression of the left ventricular ejection fraction. Coronary disease was excluded by coronarography. Cardiac magnetic resonance showed predominantly left ventricular septal hypertrophy and severe depression of the left ventricular systolic function. There was also a bright, multifocal and patchy late gadolinium enhancement with subendocardial, mesocardial and subepicardial involvement, suggestive of sarcoidosis. Biochemical study, thoracic computed tomography and positron emission tomography were inconclusive for extra-cardiac sarcoidosis. Therefore, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed. The procedure was complicated by the development of complete atrioventricular block, requiring implantation of a cardiac resynchronization pacing device. A few days after device implantation, the patient developed fever. The echocardiography revealed extensive vegetations, and thus the diagnosis of a device-associated infective endocarditis was made. Even though antibiotic therapy was promptly started, the patient ended up dying. Biopsy results revealed lymphocytic myocarditis. This case is paradigmatic because it shows how the etiologic diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy can be challenging. Non-invasive diagnostic exams may not provide a definite diagnosis, requiring an endomyocardial biopsy. However, the benefits versus risks of such procedure must always be carefully weighted.
Abstract Background: Heart failure (HF) is a highly prevalent syndrome. Although the long-term prognostic factors have been identified in chronic HF, this information is scarcer with respect to patients with acute HF. despite available data in the literature on long-term prognostic factors in chronic HF, data on acute HF patients are more scarce. Objectives: To develop a predictor of unfavorable prognostic events in patients hospitalized for acute HF syndromes, and to characterize a group at higher risk regarding their clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes. Methods: cohort study of 600 patients admitted for acute HF, defined according to the European Society of Cardiology criteria. Primary endpoint for score derivation was defined as all-cause mortality and / or rehospitalization for HF at 12 months. For score validation, the following endpoints were used: all-cause mortality and / or readmission for HF at 6, 12 and 24 months. The exclusion criteria were: high output HF; patients with acute myocardial infraction, acute myocarditis, infectious endocarditis, pulmonary infection, pulmonary artery hypertension and severe mitral stenosis. Results: 505 patients were included, and prognostic predicting factors at 12 months were identified. One or two points were assigned according to the odds ratio (OR) obtained (p < 0.05). After the total score value was determined, a 4-point cut-off was determined for each ROC curve at 12 months. Two groups were formed according to the number of points, group A < 4 points, and group B = 4 points. Group B was composed of older patients, with higher number of comorbidities and predictors of the combined endpoint at 6, 12 and 24 months, as linearly represented in the survival curves (Log rank). Conclusions: This risk score enabled the identification of a group with worse prognosis at 12 months.
Resumo Fundamento: A insuficiência cardíaca (IC) é uma síndrome de elevada prevalência. Apesar de existir na literatura informação relativa aos fatores prognósticos a longo prazo na IC crônica, esta é mais escassa no que diz respeito aos pacientes com IC aguda. Objetivos: Desenvolver um score preditor de eventos prognósticos desfavoráveis em doentes admitidos com síndromes de IC aguda e caracterizar um grupo de maior risco quanto às suas características clínicas, terapêutica e resultados. Métodos: Estudo de coorte de 600 doentes internados com IC aguda, definida de acordo com os critérios da Sociedade Europeia de Cardiologia. O endpoint primário para a derivação do score foi definido como mortalidade de qualquer causa e/ou reinternação por IC aos 12 meses. Para a validação do score, foram utilizados como endpoints: mortalidade de qualquer causa e/ou reinternação por IC aos 6, 12 e 24 meses. Os critérios de exclusão foram: IC de alto débito, pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio, miocardite aguda, endocardite infeciosa, infeção pulmonar, hipertensão arterial pulmonar e estenose mitral grave. Resultados: Foram incluídos 505 doentes e identificados preditores prognósticos aos 12 meses. Atribuíram-se 1 ou 2 pontos (p.) de acordo com os odds ratio (OR) obtidos (p < 0,05). Após a determinação do valor de score total, foi estabelecido um cut-off de 4 pontos por curva ROC. Constituíram-se 2 grupos de acordo com a pontuação, grupo A < 4 p. versus grupo B = 4 p. O grupo B era constituído por idosos, com maior número de comorbidades e preditor de endpoint combinado aos 6, 12 e 24 meses traduzido linearmente nas curvas de sobrevida (Log rank). Conclusões: Este score de risco permitiu identificar um grupo com pior prognóstico aos 12 meses.