ABSTRACT The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of water drained after the use of the knife-roller (an implement used to incorporate rice residues after harvest), the partial global warming potential (pGWP) and straw decomposition as a result of postharvest field management of irrigated rice. The experiments were conducted during the 2018 and 2019 offseason and the treatments consisted of several water drainage periods (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days) after a field pass with a knife-roller. In addition, a nonflooded harvest treatment without straw management was included. Analysis of drainage water three days after a pass with the kniferoller showed a reduction in total soluble solids by 94% compared to zero days. Nitrogen and soluble phosphorus were not influenced by the treatments. However, potassium levels increased as the drainage period increased, which is related to the period between harvest and drainage. As the electrical conductivity is influenced by the concentration of ions, it showed the same response curve as the potassium levels and, for pH, there were small oscillations influenced by the temperature. The total CH4 emission and the pGWP were higher when the water depth remained for a longer period. However, the N2O emissions were higher in the absence of soil submersion. Water should be drained three days after a pass with the knife-roller in order to reduce potassium loss and suspended solids as well as pGWP. The use of the knife-roller accelerated the process of straw decomposition in relation to the unmanaged straw treatment.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of seeder furrow opening mechanisms on soil physical characteristics, plant growth, and soybean yield in lowland areas with the presence of compacted layer near the surface. An experiment was conducted in the lowland experimental area of the Federal University of Santa Maria-RS, Brazil, during the 2015/16 and 2016/17 growing season. The experimental design was a randomized block with five replications and four treatments: Planter using shank (S) at 0.23 m depth; S at 0.13 m; Planter using double disk at 0.07 m depth and Raised-bed + S at 0.12 m depth. The use of S at 0.23 m depth allowed reduction of penetration resistance and increase of soil macroporosity in the layers 0-0.1 and 0.1-0.2 m depth in the seeding row. Sowing with S at 0.23 m depth and Raised-bed + S at 0.12 m depth allowed a better development of soybean plants in compacted irrigated rice area (higher nodulation, leaf area index and root growth), as well as higher grain yield.
RESUMO: O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de mecanismos sulcadores da semeadora sobre características físicas do solo, crescimento de plantas e produtividade de soja em área de terras baixas com presença de camada compactada. Para isso, foi conduzido um experimento na área de várzea da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, durante as safras agrícolas 2015/16 e 2016/17. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e quatro tratamentos, sendo eles: Haste sulcadora (HS) a 0.23 m de profundidade; HS a 0.13 m; Disco duplo a 0.07 m e Microcamalhão+HS a 0.12 m. A utilização da HS a 0.23 m possibilitou o aumento da macroporosidade e a redução da resistência à penetração mecânica do solo nas camadas de 0-0.1 e 0.1-0.2 m de profundidade na linha de semeadura. A semeadura com HS a 0.23 m e Microcamalhão+HS a 0.12 m viabilizam melhor desenvolvimento das plantas de soja em área de terras baixas compactada (maior nodulação, índice de área foliar e crescimento radicular), bem como maior produtividade de grãos.
ABSTRACT One of the challenges in rice areas is the sustainable post-harvest system, which involves using rice straw management and cover crop species. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the emission of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) with the use of different post-harvest management of rice straw as well as with the combined use of ryegrass. A field experiment was conducted during the 2016 off-season and 2016/17 rice crop season with different post-harvest rice straw management: maintaining rice straw on the soil surface (No-tillage); incorporating straw into dry soil with a disc (Disc); incorporating straw into flooded soil with a roller crimper (Roller Crimper); maintaining rice straw on the soil surface with subsequent rolling of the soil with a roller (Roller). In each straw management, treatments with and without ryegrass were established. The results demonstrate that incorporating rice straw in flooded soil with a roller crimper increases CH4 emissions in the off-season, and used in combination with ryegrass, proved to be the most significant contributor to partial global warming potential. Most annual N2O emissions occur in the off-season for all management treatments, especially for the no-tillage treatment, which showed increased emissions when combined with the use of ryegrass. However, as global warming potential is influenced mainly by emissions of CH4, the no-tillage system showed the best mitigation potential on greenhouse gas emissions.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of raised seedbeds associated with irrigation on the yield of soybean (Glycine max) rotated with rice (Oryza sativa) in lowland conditions in Southern Brazil. Field experiments were conducted in two crop seasons (2014/2015 and 2015/2016), with two planting systems (raised seedbed and flat planting) and two irrigation managements (irrigated and nonirrigated). Water use, biological nitrogen fixation, and yield were evaluated. The water used for raised seedbeds was 14% (151 m3 ha-1) and 27% (163 m3 ha-1) lower than that for flat planting in the first and second crop seasons, respectively. Irrigation increased nodule number per plant, nodule dry weight, and biological nitrogen fixation. The average grain yield of the raised seedbed system was 10% (529 kg ha-1) and 9% (362 kg ha-1) higher than that of flat planting in 2014/2015 and 2015/2016, respectively. Irrigation improved yield by 5% (203 kg ha-1) and 7% (265 kg ha-1) in each crop year. The use of raised seedbeds associated with irrigation improves the yield of soybean grown in rotation with rice in lowland in Southern Brazil.
Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do cultivo em camalhões associado à irrigação sobre a produtividade de soja (Glycine max) em rotação com arroz (Oryza sativa), em condições de terras baixas, no Sul do Brasil. Foram conduzidos experimentos em campo, em dois anos agrícolas (2014/2015 e 2015/2016), com dois sistemas de cultivo (camalhões e sem camalhões) e dois manejos de irrigação (irrigado e não irrigado). Foram avaliados uso de água, fixação biológica de nitrogênio e produtividade. O uso de água nos camalhões foi 14% (151 m3 ha-1) e 27% (163 m3 ha-1) menor que o no sistema sem camalhões, no primeiro e no segundo ano agrícola, respectivamente. A irrigação incrementou o número de nódulos por planta, a massa seca de nódulos e a fixação biológica de nitrogênio. A produtividade média no sistema com camalhões foi 10% (529 kg ha-1) e 9% (362 kg ha-1) maior que a no sistema sem camalhões em 2014/2015 e 2015/2016, respectivamente. A irrigação incrementou a produtividade em 5% (203 kg ha-1) e 7% (265 kg ha-1) em cada ano agrícola. O uso de camalhões associado à irrigação incrementa a produtividade de soja em rotação com arroz em terras baixas, no Sul do Brasil.
ABSTRACT The residue of imidazolinone herbicides in soil can be detrimental to soybean cultivation in rotation with Clearfield® rice. Thus, this research aimed to evaluate the ryegrass phytoremediation capacity on the imazapyr+imazapic residue in the soil in two soil moisture conditions in the off-season, and the effect on soybean growth in the next growing season. Two experiments were conducted between 2016 and 2017 in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. It was used the randomized block design in a 3 × 2 factorial. The first factor being the residue in the soil of 0, 210 and 420 g c.p.·ha–1 of the formulated mixture of the herbicides imazapyr+imazapic(525 + 175 g a.i.·kg–1) applied to rice in the 2015/2016 growing season, and the second factor being the presence or absence of ryegrass in the off-season. One experiment was conducted under soil moisture above 70% of field capacity in the off-season, and the other under ambient condition of soil moisture. The soil residue of the application of 420 g c.p.·ha–1 of the imazapyr+imazapic herbicides performed129 days before planting caused phytotoxicity and reduced dry matter of ryegrass under high soil moisture condition in the off-season in irrigated rice areas. Soybean, when planted 359 days after application, has its initial root and shoot growth affected by the residue of 210 and 420 g c.p.·ha–1 rates in high soil moisture condition in the off-season, regardless of ryegrass cultivation during the same period. However, grain yield is not affected.
ABSTRACT Rice varieties from the Clearfield® system may present different tolerance levels to imidazolinone herbicides in function of application rate. The objective of this research was to evaluate the phytotoxicity of different rates of the formulated mixture of the herbicides imazapyr+imazapic applied on two tolerant irrigated rice varieties. The experiment was carried out in 2015/16 and 2016/17 growing seasons. A randomized complete block design was used in a factorial 2x6 with five replications. The factor A was composed by the tolerant rice varieties Guri INTA CL and IRGA 424 RI, and the factor B by rates of the formulated mixture of the herbicides imazapyr+imazapic (525+175 g a.i. kg-1) of 0, 140, 210, 280, 350, and 420 g c.p. ha-1. In the first growing season, it was observed maximum phytotoxicity of 8.5% while in the second the highest percentage was 13%. The number of stems m-2, plant height, shoot dry matter, SPAD index, and grain yield were not influenced (p≥0.05) by herbicide rates. The application of the formulated mixture of the herbicides imazapyr+imazapic causes low initial phytotoxicity to the tolerant rice varieties Guri INTA CL and IRGA 424 RI up to three times the recommended rate, not influencing their grain yield.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of fertilization with nitrogen topdressing and silicates, as well as of the use of fungicides, on the occurrence of rice blast on panicles, milling yield, and whole grains, vitreous grains, and chalky kernels in a flood-irrigated rice cultivar sensitive to the disease. Two experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design, in a 4×4×2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates: in experiment 1, four doses of nitrogen × four doses of calcium and magnesium silicate on soil × with and without fungicides; and, in experiment 2, four doses of nitrogen × four doses of potassium silicate applied on leaves x with and without fungicides. At the doses above 60 kg ha-1 nitrogen without fungicides, there was an increase of rice blast severity on panicles, a decrease in the percentage of whole and vitreous grains, and an increase in chalky kernels and chalky area. The greatest effects of silicates occurred without fungicides. Fungicide use reduced the severity of rice blast on panicles. Milling yield ranged from 60 to 70% in both experiments. The control of rice blast with fungicides maintains high rice grain quality, milling yield, and percentages of whole and vitreous grains.
Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da adubação com nitrogênio em cobertura e silicatos, bem como da utilização de fungicidas, sobre a ocorrência de brusone nas panículas, a renda do benefício e os grãos inteiros, vítreos e gessados, em cultivar de arroz irrigado por inundação sensível à doença. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 4×4×2, com quatro repetições: no experimento 1, quatro doses de nitrogênio × quatro doses de silicato de cálcio e magnésio via solo × com e sem uso de fungicidas; e, no experimento 2, quatro doses de nitrogênio × quatro doses de silicato de potássio via foliar × com e sem fungicidas. Nas doses acima de 60 kg ha-1 de nitrogênio sem fungicidas, houve aumento da severidade de brusone nas panículas, redução do percentual de grãos inteiros e vítreos, e aumento de grãos gessados e área gessada. Os maiores efeitos dos silicatos ocorreram sem aplicações de fungicidas. O uso de fungicidas reduziu a severidade de brusone nas panículas. A renda do benefício oscilou entre 60 e 70%, em ambos os experimentos. O controle da brusone com fungicidas mantém elevadas a qualidade de grãos do arroz, a renda do benefício e as percentagens de grãos inteiros e vítreos.
Abstract: The objective of this work was to determine the duration of the effects of the mechanical interventions scarification and raised bed on soybean (Glycine max) grain yield on an Alfisol, as well as to evaluate, through physical indicators, if the use of cover plants during winter increases the duration of these effects. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Two factors were evaluated. The first consisted of types of soil preparation systems: SC14, scarification in November 2014; SC15, scarification in November 2015; RB14, raised bed built in November 2014; and RB15, raised bed built in November 2015. The second consisted of the type of cover crop used: winter fallow, oat, ryegrass, and wheat. From November 2015 to April 2016, soybean was cultivated under the different soil preparation systems. Soil density, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, soil resistance to mechanical penetration, and soybean grain yield were evaluated. There was no effect of cover plants after one crop season on the maintenance of soil physical attributes. Changes in soil density, total porosity, and resistance to mechanical penetration, promoted by scarification, are noticeable up to at least 18 months. The continuance of these modifications reflects in soybean grain yield in the second harvest.
Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o tempo de duração dos efeitos das intervenções mecânicas escarificação e camalhão no rendimento de grãos de soja (Glycine max) em um Planossolo, bem como avaliar, por meio de indicadores físicos, se o uso de plantas de cobertura no período do inverno aumenta a duração destes efeitos. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Foram avaliados dois fatores. O primeiro consistiu do tipo de preparo do solo: ES14, escarificação em novembro de 2014; ES15, escarificação em novembro de 2015; CA14, camalhão construído em novembro de 2014; e CA15, camalhão construído em novembro de 2015. O segundo consistiu do tipo de cobertura: pousio no inverno, aveia, azevém e trigo. De novembro de 2015 a abril de 2016, cultivou-se soja sob os diferentes preparos do solo. Foram avaliados densidade do solo, porosidade total, macroporosidade, microporosidade, condutividade hidráulica do solo saturado, resistência do solo à penetração mecânica e rendimento de grãos de soja. Não foi detectado efeito de plantas de cobertura, em um único ano de cultivo, na manutenção dos atributos físicos do solo. Alterações na densidade, na porosidade total e na resistência do solo à penetração, promovidas pela escarificação mecânica, são perceptíveis por no mínimo 18 meses. A persistência dessas modificações reflete no rendimento de grãos de soja na segunda safra.
ABSTRACT Water and oxygen deficiencies in the soybean crop cultivated on lowland soils are an important topic of research. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in water and oxygen supply and soybean yield caused by soil management in lowland soils. A soybean crop was grown under four soil conditions: no-tillage (NT), chiseling (CH), ridge tillage on no-tillage (NTR), and ridge tillage on chiseling (CHR). Soil bulk density, total porosity, macro- and microporosity, air permeability, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured at 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, and 0.35 m depths. Soil volumetric water content was monitored at the same depths every 30 min during the soybean cycle. The transpiration coefficient was calculated from volumetric water content to express both water and oxygen deficiency. The groundwater level was monitored throughout the soybean cycle. Plant performance was evaluated by measuring plant population, shoot dry matter, yield, and taproot depth. Soil porosity, air permeability, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were most improved in CH and CHR, and less in NTR. Nonetheless, expected improvement in soil aeration in CH, CHR, and NTR was eliminated when the water table raised to near the soil surface. The transpiration coefficient indicated that CH decreased oxygen deficiency, but caused little water deficit. The CH also provided the highest yield (4,610 kg ha-1), which was not surpassed by the addition of ridge tillage on chiseled soil (CHR) (4,001 kg ha-1). The lowest yields were observed in NT (2,842 kg ha-1), and NTR (3,565 kg ha-1), in which oxygen deficiency was more severe. Lower oxygen deficiency for soybean in chiseled lowland soil is regulated by the water table. As the transpiration coefficient is dependent on all the processes determining soil water dynamics, it is more informative than soil structural properties regarding water and oxygen deficiency in soybean in lowland soil.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of soil management systems, tillage, and application of gypsum agricultural to soil, on soybean development in lowland areas. The experiment was carried out on an Alfisol in a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement. The two soil tillage practices were without deep tillage and with deep tillage. Gypsum treatments were no gypsum application, 500kg of gypsum ha-1, 1000kg of gypsum ha-1, and 1500kg of gypsum ha-1. Deep tillage resulted in less soil resistance to root penetration during ryegrass cultivation during the soybean offseason, 11 months after applying the management treatments, resulting in higher dry mass of ryegrass in the offseason and higher soybean yield in the following year.
RESUMO: O trabalho visou identificar o efeito de dois sistemas de manejo do solo, com e sem escarificação, associado à aplicação de gesso agrícola no desenvolvimento de plantas de soja em áreas de terras baixas. O trabalho foi realizado a campo, em Planossolo Háplico Eutrófico arênico, em esquema bifatorial (2x4) no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso composto por dois sistemas de manejo do solo: sistema sem escarificação do solo e sistema com escarificação do solo. Os tratamentos com gesso agrícola foram: testemunha sem aplicação de gesso agrícola, 500kg ha-1 de gesso agrícola, 1000kg ha-1 de gesso agrícola e 1500kg ha-1 de gesso agrícola. A escarificação do solo proporciona maior rendimento de grãos de soja em áreas de terras baixas com presença de camada compactada, independente do uso de gesso agrícola. Os efeitos da escarificação do solo resultam na menor resistência à penetração de raízes no final do cultivo do azevém na entressafra da soja, 11 meses após o manejo, resultando em maior massa seca do azevém em sucessão e produtividade da soja no ano seguinte.
ABSTRACT The rapid and uniform establishment of rice crops is important for improving production. However, this condition is influenced by several factors, including the soil temperature when planting, which may delay seed germination and compromise the final stand. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of substances which have the effect of growth regulator when applied to the seeds of different rice cultivars under low-temperature conditions. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomised design with four replications in a bi-factorial scheme, where factor A was represented by the different products (gibberellic acid - AG3, tiamethoxam - TMX, Haf Plus® - HAF, and a control with water - TEST), and factor B by the irrigated rice cultivars (IRGA 424, IRGA 425, Puitá INTA CL, and Avaxi CL). In addition, the experiment was repeated at temperatures of 17 °C and 25 °C in order to simulate low-temperature conditions. The results showed that AG3 is effective in increasing seed vigour in the rice cultivars at both temperatures, with the AG3, TMX and HAF responsible for increasing germination percentage only at the temperature of 17 °C. The effect of the products is more pronounced at low temperatures, and is dependent on the cultivar; in cultivars which are sensitive to cold there is no effect from the products used.
RESUMO O rápido e uniforme estabelecimento de uma lavoura de arroz é importante para aprimorar a produção. No entanto, essa condição sofre influência de diversos fatores, entre eles a temperatura do solo no momento da semeadura, a qual poderá atrasar a germinação das sementes e comprometer o estande final. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de substâncias com efeito de regulador de crescimento aplicados em sementes de diferentes cultivares de arroz irrigado em condições de baixa temperatura. Para tanto, o experimento foi desenvolvido no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições em esquema bifatorial, onde o fator A foi representado pelos diferentes produtos (ácido giberélico - AG3, tiametoxam - TMX, Haf Plus® - HAF e testemunha com água - TEST); e o fator B, pelas cultivares de arroz irrigado (IRGA 424, IRGA 425, Puitá INTA CL e Avaxi CL). Além disso, o experimento foi reproduzido sob as temperaturas de 17 °C e 25 °C a fim de simular condições de baixas temperaturas. Os resultados indicaram que AG3 é eficiente em aumentar o vigor das sementes das cultivares de arroz nas duas temperaturas, sendo AG3, TMX e HAF responsáveis por aumentar a porcentagem de germinação final apenas à temperatura de 17 ºC. O efeito dos produtos é mais pronunciado em baixa temperatura e é dependente da cultivar utilizada, sendo que em cultivares sensíveis ao frio não há influência dos produtos utilizados.
ABSTRACT Tricyclazole is currently one of the fungicides recommended for the treatment of diseases in irrigated rice. However, there is relatively little information on its cytotoxic and genotoxic potential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of rice crop water after apllication of the tricyclazole fungicide through the Allium cepa L. test. The rice crop water samplings were collected before and 1, 15 and 30 days after application of the fungicide in rice plant shoots. The Allium cepa roots were placed in contact with the rice crop water to check for possible chromosomal abnormalities and mitotic index of the bioindicators meristematic cells. The data obtained by the Allium cepa test indicates that the application of the tricyclazole fungicide leads to an increase in the genotoxic activity in the rice crop water, through the appearance of chromosomal abnormalities, without, however, causing significant effects on the mitotic index. The major chromosomal alterations observed were anaphasic and telophasic bridges and laggard chromosomes.
ABSTRACT. The objective of this study was to analyse residues of fungicides and insecticides in rice grains that were subjected to different forms of processing. Field work was conducted during three crop seasons, and fungicides and insecticides were applied at different crop growth stages on the aerial portion of the rice plants. Azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin fungicides were sprayed only once at the R2 growth stage or twice at the R2 and R4 growth stages; cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, and thiamethoxam insecticides were sprayed at the R2 growth stage; and permethrin was sprayed at 5-day intervals from the R4 growth stage up to one day prior to harvest. Pesticide residues were analysed in uncooked, cooked, parboiled, polished and brown rice grains as well as rice hulls during the three crop seasons, for a total of 1,458 samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) using modified QuEChERS as the extraction method. No fungicide or insecticide residues were detected in rice grain samples; however, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin residues were detected in rice hull samples.
RESUMO. O estudo objetivou analisar resíduos de fungicidas e inseticidas nos grãos de arroz submetidos a diferentes formas de processamento. O trabalho foi realizado no campo durante três safras agrícolas com a aplicação de fungicidas e inseticidas sobre a parte aérea das plantas de arroz. Foi realizado um tratamento com a aplicação dos fungicidas azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin no estádio de desenvolvimento R2, e outro tratamento com os mesmos fungicidas com duas aplicações nos estádios R2 e R4 em parcelas individuais. Um tratamento com inseticida consistiu na aplicação de cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, thiamethoxam no estádio R2, e outro tratamento na aplicação de permethrin com intervalo de cinco dias entre as aplicações a partir do estádio de desenvolvimento R4 até um dia antes da colheita. Foram analisados resíduos de fungicida e inseticida nos grãos polidos e integral, cru, cozido e parboilizado, e na casca de arroz, totalizando 1.458 amostras. As amostras foram analisadas por cromatografia em fase gasosa com detecção por captura de elétrons (GC-ECD) usando QuEChERS modificados como método de extração. Resíduos de fungicidas e inseticidas não foram detectados nos grãos de arroz. No entanto, resíduos de azoxystrobin e cypermethrin foram detectados na casca de arroz.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify the richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides and insecticides of the rice paddy fields. In the crop seasons of 2012/13 and 2013/14, field experiments were performed, which consisted of single-dose applications of the fungicides trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and tricyclazole, and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam and diflubenzuron, in 10 m2 experimental plots, over rice plants in the R3 stage. Control plots with and without rice plants were maintained in order to simulate a natural environment. Soil samples were collected during rice cultivation for assessment of the macroinvertebrate fauna. Chemical-physical parameters assessed in the experiments included temperature, pH and oxygen dissolved in the water and pesticide persistence in the water and in the soil. The application of a single dose of the pesticides and fungicides in the recommended period does not cause significant negative effects over the richness and density of the macroinvertebrates. Tebuconazole, tricyclazole and thiamethoxam showed high persistence in the irrigation water of rice paddy fields. Thus, the doses and number of applications of these products in crops should be carefully handled in order to avoid contamination of the environment.
ABSTRACT: The intensive use of plant protection products in rice paddy fields ( Oryza sativa L.) has caused concern about the environmental impact on communities of non-target organisms that are natural inhabitants in these agroecosystems. The purpose of this review is to analyze the data currently available in the literature about some important fungicides and insecticides (such as trifloxystrobin, tebuconazole, tricyclazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam), which are currently used to control pests and diseases in rice paddy fields, as well as their effects on the community of non-target aquatic organisms.
RESUMO: O uso intensivo de produtos fitossanitários na lavoura de arroz irrigado ( Oryza sativa L.) tem causado preocupação quanto ao impacto ambiental sobre comunidades de organismos aquáticos não alvos que são habitantes naturais nesses agroecossistemas. O objetivo da presente revisão é analisar os dados atualmente existentes na literatura sobre alguns importantes fungicidas e inseticidas (tais como trifloxistrobina, tebuconazol, triciclazol, lambda-cialotrina e tiametoxam), os quais são usados para controlar pragas e doenças na lavoura de arroz irrigado, bem como seus efeitos sobre a comunidade de organismos aquáticos não alvos.