BACKGROUND: Even students with previous academic success may face challenges that affect their academic performance. Many medical schools offer programs to students at the risk of academic failure, to ensure that they succeed in the course. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: In this report we describe a pioneering academic tutoring program developed at a Brazilian medical school and discuss the initial results of the program based on the feedback from tutors and data regarding the progression of students in the medical course. RESULTS: In 2018, 33 students enrolled into the program. Students' performance difficulties were mainly associated with mental health problems and socioeconomic vulnerability. Of the 33 students, 27 (81.8%) were assisted by the Mental Health Support Service and 16 (48.5%) were assisted by the Social Assistance Service. In addition to the planning academic activity class load, tutors were able to assist students in solving socioeconomic issues, carrying out personal support interventions with the promotion of self-esteem, and presenting suggestions for behavioral changes in their routine. For most students (72%), the action plan proposed by the tutors was successful. Eight of the 14 (57%) students in the fourth year progressed to the final two years of in-hospital practical training (internship). CONCLUSIONS: The Academic Tutoring Program showed positive results for most of the students. Close monitoring and tutor intervention allowed students with poor academic performance to overcome the low performance cycle. These important tasks demand time and energy from tutors, and institutional recognition of these professionals is essential for the successful maintenance of the program.
Polymyositis is a systemic and idiopathic inflammatory myopathy that, besides muscle manifestation, may occur with respiratory involvement, gastrointestinal tract and rarely renal involvement. In this latter, there are only two cases of IgA nephropathy, but both in dermatomyositis. On the other hand, we reported, for the first time, a case of IgA nephropathy in polymyositis.
A polimiosite é uma miopatia inflamatória idiopática sistêmica que, além da manifestação muscular, pode eventualmente cursar com acometimento respiratório, do trato gastrintestinal e, raramente, renal. Neste último caso, há descrição de apenas dois casos de nefropatia por IgA em pacientes com miopatia, ambos em dermatomiosite. Em contrapartida, relatamos pela primeira vez esta rara associação em polimiosite.
OBJECTIVE: Prolonged warm ischemia time and increased intra-abdominal pressure caused by pneumoperitoneum during a laparoscopic donor nephrectomy could enhance renal ischemia reperfusion injury. For this reason, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy may be associated with a slower graft function recovery. However, an adequate protective response may balance the ischemia reperfusion damage. This study investigated whether laparoscopic donor nephrectomy modified the protective response of renal tissue during kidney transplantation. METHODS: Patients undergoing live renal transplantation were prospectively analyzed and divided into two groups based on the donor nephrectomy approach used: 1) the control group, recipients of open donor nephrectomy (n = 29), and 2) the study group, recipients of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (n = 26). Graft biopsies were obtained at two time points: T-1 = after warm ischemia time and T+1 = 45 minutes after kidney reperfusion. The samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the Bcl-2 and HO-1 proteins and by real-time polymerase chain reaction for the mRNA expression of Bcl-2, HO-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. RESULTS: The area under the curve for creatinine and delayed graft function were similar in both the laparoscopic and open groups. There was no difference in the protective gene expression between the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and open donor nephrectomy groups. The protein expression of HO-1 and Bcl-2 were similar between the open and laparoscopic groups. Furthermore, the gene expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 correlated with the warm ischemia time in the open group (p = 0.047) and that of vascular endothelial growth factor with the area under the curve for creatinine in the laparoscopic group (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: The postoperative renal function and protective factor expression were similar between laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and open donor nephrectomy. These findings ensure laparoscopic donor nephrectomy utilization in renal transplantation.
INTRODUCTION: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most frequent primary glomerulopathy in Brazil and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Pathogenesis is related to podocyte injury, which may be due to several factors including viruses, drugs, genetics and immunological factors. In 2004, the Columbia classification of FSGS identified five histological variants of the disease: collapsing (COL), usual (NOS), tip lesion (TIP), perihilar (PHI) and cellular variant (CEL). The objective of this study was to classify the FSGS biopsies in these morphological variants. METHODS: One hundred thirty-one cases of renal biopsies with primary FSGS diagnosis, which had been performed at a Brazilian reference center from 1996 to 2006, were classified according to the Columbia criteria. RESULTS: FSGS cases were distributed as follows: 38.2% NOS variant, 36.6% COL, 14.5% TIP, 6.9% PHI and 3.8% CEL. CONCLUSION: COL variant of FSGS seems to be more prevalent in Brazil in comparison with other centers worldwide, which may be related to environmental and socioeconomic factors.
INTRODUÇÃO: A glomerulosclerose segmentar e focal (GESF) é a glomerulopatia primária mais frequente no Brasil e sua incidência está aumentando em todo o mundo. Sua patogênese está relacionada com a lesão de podócitos, que pode ser devida a vários fatores, incluindo vírus, drogas, fatores genéticos e imunológicos. Em 2004, a classificação de Columbia GESF definiu cinco variantes histológicas da doença: colapsante (COL), usual (NOS), lesão apical (TIP), Peri-hilar (PHI) e variante celular (CEL). O objetivo deste estudo foi classificar as biópsias com diagnóstico de GESF nessas variantes morfológicas. MÉTODOS: Cento e trinta e um casos de biópsias renais com diagnóstico de GESF primária em um centro brasileiro de referência em nefrologia, no período de 1996 a 2006, foram classificados de acordo com os critérios de Columbia. RESULTADOS: Os casos se distribuíram da seguinte forma: 38,2% da variante de NOS; 36,6% de COL; 14,5% de TIP; 6,9% de PHI; 3,8% de CEL. CONCLUSÃO: A variante COL de GESF parece ser mais prevalente no Brasil do que em outros centros internacionais e isso pode ser reflexo de fatores socioeconômicos e ambientais.
ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the role of adipose tissue-derived stem cells in reducing the progression of renal fibrosis. Methods: adipose tissue-derived stem cells were isolated from C57Bl/6 mice and characterized by cytometry and differentiation. Renal fibrosis was established after unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 1 hour. Four hours after reperfusion, 2.105 adipose tissue-derived stem cells were administered intraperitoneally and the animals were followed for 24 hours during 6 weeks. In another experimental group, 2.105 adipose tissue-derived stem cells were administered only after 6 weeks of reperfusion, and they were euthanized and studied 4 weeks later. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, the animals treated with adipose tissue-derived stem cells displayed reduced renal and tubular dysfunction and an increase of the regenerative process. Renal expression of IL-6 and TNF mRNA were decreased in the animals treated with adipose tissue-derived stem cells, while the levels of IL-4, IL-10, and HO-1 were increased, despite the fact that adipose tissue-derived stem cells were not observed in the kidneys via SRY analysis. Results: In 6 weeks, the kidneys of non-treated animals decreased in size, and the kidneys of the animals treated with adipose tissue-derived stem cells remained at normal size and display less deposition of type 1 collagen and FSP-1. The renal protection observed in animals treated with adipose tissue-derived stem cells was followed by a drop in serum levels of TNF-α, KC, RANTES, and IL-1a. Treatment with adipose tissue-derived stem cells after 6 weeks, when the animals already displayed established fibrosis, demonstrated an improvement in functional parameters and less fibrosis analyzed by Picrosirius stain, as well as a reduction of the expression of type 1 collagen and vimentin mRNA. Conclusion: Treatment with adipose tissue-derived stem cells may deter the progression of renal fibrosis by modulation of the early inflammatory response, likely via reduction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o papel das células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo na redução da progressão da fibrose renal. Métodos: células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo foram isoladas de camundongos C57Bl/6 e caracterizadas por citometria e diferenciação. Fibrose renal foi instaurada após clampeamento unilateral do pedículo renal por 1 hora. Após 4 horas de reperfusão, 2.105 células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo foram administradas por via intraperitoneal, e os animais foram acompanhados por 24 horas e 6 semanas. Em outro grupo de experimentos, 2.105 células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo foram administradas somente após 6 semanas de reperfusão, e os animais foram sacrificados e estudados 4 semanas mais tarde. Após 24 horas da reperfusão, animais tratados com células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo apresentaram reduzida disfunção renal e tubular, além de aumento do processo regenerativo. Expressão renal de RNAm de IL-6 e TNF foi diminuída nos animais tratados com células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo, enquanto IL-4, IL-10 e HO-1 foram aumentadas, apesar de células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo não serem observadas nos rins por meio da análise SRY. Resultados: Em 6 semanas, os rins dos animais não tratados diminuíram; no entanto, os rins dos animais tratados com células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo permaneceram com o tamanho normal e apresentaram menor deposição de colágeno tipo 1 e FSP-1. Proteção renal observada em animais tratados com células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo foi seguida por redução nos níveis séricos de TNF-α, KC, RANTES e IL-1a. O tratamento com células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo após 6 semanas, quando os animais já apresentavam fibrose instalada, demonstrou melhora em parâmetros funcionais e menos fibrose, analisada pela coloração de Picrosirius, e redução da expressão de RNAm de colágeno tipo I e vimentina. Conclusão: A terapia com células-tronco derivadas do tecido adiposo pode deter a progressão da fibrose renal, pela modulação da resposta inflamatória precoce, provavelmente por meio da redução da transição epitelial-mesenquimal.
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the degree of vascular occlusion, vascular recanalization, and necrosis of the vascular wall caused by polyvinyl alcohol-covered polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) particles compared to trisacryl particles after renal embolization. METHODS: Seventy-nine female albino New Zealand rabbits underwent arterial catheterization of the right kidney. Thirty-three animals were embolized with trisacryl particles, thirty-one with PVAc particles, and fifteen were kept as controls. Four animals were excluded (three trisacryl and one PVAc) due to early death. Five subgroups of six animals were created. The animals in the different groups were sacrificed either 48 hours, 5 days, 10 days, 30 days, or 90 days after embolization. The control group was divided into subgroups of three animals each and kept for the same periods of time. The kidneys were dyed with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome and then examined using optical microscopy. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the degree of vascular occlusion caused by the trisacryl and the PVAc particles between the five-day and the ten-day groups. Additional differences were noted between the five-day and 48-hour groups in regard to the amount of necrosis. For both findings, the PVAc group members showed adequate tissue reaction (ischemia and volumetric reduction) and less recanalization than those treated with trisacryl. CONCLUSION: The use of PVAc as an embolization material exhibited an adequate tissue reaction (ischemia and volumetric reduction), more expressive vascular occlusion and necrosis, and less recanalization than the trisacryl material.
An environment was built on the Internet for discussing clinical cases on the website of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology (http://www.sbn.org.br). The aim of this work is to present the operation of this system and the improvements made since its introduction in September 2001. Up to the present moment, 62 cases have been published and diagnosed. All of them are stored in the website for consultation without any previous registration. The Internet also proved to be a promising environment for clinical-pathological discussion for allowing the participation of professionals from distant centers and without local conditions for this kind of activity of great importance for continuing education in Medicine.
Criou-se um espaço na internet para a discussão de casos clínicos no website da Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia (http://www.sbn.org.br). O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o funcionamento deste espaço virtual e os aprimoramentos gerados após sua implantação, em setembro de 2001. Atualmente, 62 casos já foram divulgados e diagnosticados. Todos estão arquivados neste espaço para consulta sem cadastro prévio. A internet mostrou-se também um ambiente propício à discussão anatomoclínica, uma vez que permite a participação de profissionais de centros distantes e sem condição local para este tipo de atividade, tão importante para o contínuo aprendizado da Medicina.
INTRODUCTION: Administration of the NO inhibitor Nwð-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NAME) and a high-salt diet (HS) promotes severe albuminuria and renal injury, which regresses upon discontinuation of treatments. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether these changes reappear after reinstitution of HS, and whether they are prevented by treatment with the antilymphocyte agent mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or the AT-1 receptor blocker losartan (L). Adult male Munich-Wistar rats received NAME and HS. A control Group (C) received only HS. After 20 days, rats receiving HS and NAME exhibited severe hypertension and albuminuria. After a 30-day recovery period, hypertension was attenuated and albuminuria had virtually disappeared. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were then distributed among the following groups: HS, receiving HS; NS, receiving a normal salt (NS) diet; HS-MMF, receiving HS and MMF; HS-LOS, receiving HS and L; HS-HDZ, receiving HS and hydralazine (HDZ). Sixty days later, NS rats showed only slight albuminuria and renal damage or inflammation. In contrast, HS rats developed severe hypertension, marked glomerulosclerosis with interstitial expansion and renal infiltration by macrophages and angiotensin II-positive cells. The group treated with losartan had lowered blood pressure and a lack of albuminuria or renal injury. MMF provided similar protection without altering blood pressure, suggesting a nonhemodynamic effect, a hypothesis reinforced by the finding that HDZ lowered blood pressure without preventing renal injury. RESULTS: These results indicate that treatment with HS and NAME predisposes to the development of hypertension and renal injury upon salt overload, characterizing a new model of chronic nephropathy. CONCLUSION: The response to MMF or L, but not HDZ, suggests a key role for inflammatory rather than hemodynamic factors.
INTRODUÇÃO: A administração de Nômega-nitro-L-arginina metiléster (NAME), um inibidor da produção de NO, com dieta rica em sal (HS) promove albuminúria e dano renal graves, reversíveis ao interromperem-se os tratamentos. OBJETIVO: Investigamos se tais alterações recrudescem ao reinstituir-se a HS e se são prevenidas pelo micofenolato mofetil (MMF), um agente antilinfócito, ou losartan, um bloqueador do receptor AT-1. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Ratos Münich-Wistar machos adultos receberam NAME e HS. Um grupo controle (C) recebeu apenas HS. Após 20 dias, os ratos que receberam HS e NAME exibiam hipertensão e albuminúria graves. Após recuperação de 30 dias, a hipertensão atenuou-se e a albuminúria praticamente desapareceu. Formaram-se então os grupos: HS, recebendo HS; NS, recebendo dieta normal em sal (NS); HS-MMF, recebendo HS e MMF; HS-LOS, recebendo HS e losartan; HS-HDZ, recebendo HS e hidralazina. Após sessenta dias os ratos NS tinham albuminúria e dano/inflamação renal apenas discretos. Já os ratos HS desenvolveram hipertensão e glomerulosclerose acentuadas, expansão intersticial e infiltração renal por macrófagos e células positivas para angiotensina II. Losartan baixou a pressão arterial e preveniu albuminúria e lesão renal. MMF proporcionou proteção semelhante sem alteração pressórica, sugerindo a ação de mecanismos não hemodinâmicos, hipótese reforçada pelo achado de que a HDZ baixou a pressão arterial sem prevenir a nefropatia. RESULTADOS: Esses resultados indicam que o tratamento com HS e NAME predispõe ao desenvolvimento de hipertensão e lesão renal induzidos por excesso de sal, caracterizando um novo modelo de nefropatia crônica. CONCLUSÃO: A resposta ao MMF ou losartan, mas não à hidralazina, sugere o predomínio de fatores inflamatórios.