Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the polymerization properties of bulk-fill materials (low and high-viscosity) by using high-intensity continuous light and intermittent photo-activation in terms of polymerization shrinkage stress and degree of conversion (DC). The following Bulk-fill and Conventional nanofilled resin composites were evaluated: Filtek Z350XT Flow (3M/ESPE), SureFil SDR Flow (Dentsply), Filtek Bulk Fill Flow (3M/ESPE), Filtek Z350XT (3M/ESPE) and Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior (3M/ESPE). A LED device (DB 685, Dabi Atlante) was used for both protocols: continuous uniform and intermittent photo-activation (light-on and light-off cycles) with identical radiant exposure (14 J/cm2). The polymerization shrinkage stress (n=6) was evaluated by inserting a single increment of 12 mm3 between two stainless steel plates (6×2 mm) adapted to a Universal Testing Machine (UTM), at different times. Measurements were recorded after photo-activation. The degree of conversion was evaluated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscope (FTIR) with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory (n=5). Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD (α=0.05) tests. Bulk Fill Posterior presented higher shrinkage stress values when photo-activated with the intermittent technique (p<0.05). The intermittent photo-activation increased the degree of conversion for the low-viscosity bulk-fills (p<0.05). Therefore, the use of modulated photo-activation (intermittent) must be indicated with caution since its use can influence the shrinkage stress and degree of conversion of composites, which varies according to the resin formulations.
Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de polimerização de materiais bulk-fill (baixa e alta viscosidade) utilizando luz contínua de alta intensidade e fotoativação intermitente em relação ao estresse de contração de polimerização e grau de conversão (DC). As seguintes resinas compostas Bulk-fill e nanohíbridas convencionais foram avaliadas: Filtek Z350XT Flow (3M/ESPE), SureFil SDR Flow (Dentsply), Filtek Bulk Fill Flow (3M/ESPE), Filtek Z350XT (3M/ESPE) e Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior (3M/ESPE). Um dispositivo de LED (DB 685, Dabi Atlante) foi utilizado nos dois protocolos: fotoativação contínua e intermitente contínua (ciclos de liga e desliga) com exposição idêntica (14 J/cm2). A tensão de contração de polimerização (n=6) foi avaliada através da inserção de um incremento único de 12 mm3 entre duas placas de aço inoxidável (6×2 mm) adaptadas a uma Máquina de Ensaio Universal (UTM), em tempos diferentes. As medições foram registradas após a fotoativação. O grau de conversão foi avaliado por FTIR-ATR (n=5). Os dados foram analisados pelos testes ANOVA a três fatores e teste de Tukey (α=0,05). A resina Bulk Fill Posterior apresentou maiores valores de tensão de contração quando fotoativadas com a técnica intermitente (p<0,05). A fotoativação intermitente aumentou o grau de conversão nas resinas bulk-fill de baixa viscosidade (p<0,05). Portanto, o uso de fotoativação modulada (intermitente) deve ser indicado com cautela, uma vez que seu uso pode influenciar a tensão de contração e o grau de conversão dos compósitos, o que varia de acordo com as formulações da resina.
Abstract Simplified dentin-bonding systems are clinically employed for most adhesive procedures, and they are prone to hydrolytic degradation. Objective This study aimed to investigate the effect of laser diode irradiation on the degree of conversion (DC), water sorption (WS), and water solubility (WSB) of these bonding systems in an attempt to improve their physico-mechanical resistance. Material and Methods Two bonding agents were tested: a two-step total-etch system [Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE (SB)] and a universal system [Adper™ Single Bond Universal, 3M ESPE (SU)]. Square-shaped specimens were prepared and assigned into 4 groups (n=5): SB and SU (control groups – no laser irradiation) and SB-L and SU-L [SB and SU laser (L) – irradiated groups]. DC was assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance. Additional uncured resin samples (≈3.0 µL, n=5) of each adhesive were also scanned for final DC calculation. For WS/WSB tests, similar specimens (n=10) were prepared and measured by monitoring the mass changes after dehydration/water storage cycles. For both tests, adhesive fluids were dropped into standardized Teflon molds (6.0×6.0×1.0 mm), irradiated with a 970-nm laser diode, and then polymerized with an LED-curing unit (1 W/cm2). Results Laser irradiation immediately before photopolymerization increased the DC (%) of the tested adhesives: SB-L>SB>SU-L>SU. For WS/WSB (μg/mm3), only the dentin bonding system (DBS) was a significant factor (p<0.05): SB>SU. Conclusion Irradiation with a laser diode improved the degree of conversion of all tested simplified dentin bonding systems, with no impact on water sorption and solubility.
Abstract This in vitro study evaluated the effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium ascorbate on the microtensile bond strength of an etch-and-rinse system to bleached bovine enamel. Sixty bovine enamel blocks (4x4 mm) were flattened and randomly allocated into 5 groups: G1 (negative control): without treatment; G2 (positive control): bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP); G3: bleached and stored for 7 days in artificial saliva before restorative procedures; G4: bleached and treated with 10% sodium bicarbonate solution for 5 min; G5: bleached and treated with 10% sodium ascorbate hydrogel for 15 min. HP gel was applied twice (20 min each, except in G1) and the adhesive restorations were performed. After 24 h, the specimens were sectioned into sticks and submitted to microtensile bond strength testing with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min (n=12). As a complementary visual observation, the enamel surfaces of the G1 and G2 specimens were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (p<0.05). The means (standard deviation) were: G1: 24.22±7.74; G2: 18.29±5.88; G3: 40.88±7.95; G4: 19.95±5.67 and G5: 24.43±6.43. Adhesive failures were predominant in all groups. The comparison between the treatments indicates that waiting 7 days after bleaching is still the most effective approach. When this waiting period is not possible, application of sodium ascorbate or sodium bicarbonate seems to be a good alternative. Therefore, the practicality of obtaining sodium bicarbonate in the bleaching kits and its higher stability enables its clinical use.
Resumo Este estudo in vitro avaliou o efeito do bicarbonato de sódio e do ascorbato de sódio na resistência de união de um sistema adesivo convencional unido ao esmalte bovino clareado. Sessenta blocos de esmalte bovino (4x4 mm) foram planificados e distribuídos aleatoriamente em 5 grupos: G1: (controle negativo); G2 (controle positivo): clareamento com peróxido de hidrogênio 35% (HP); G3: clareamento com HP seguido de armazenamento por 7 dias em saliva artificial antes do procedimento restaurador; G4: clareamento com HP seguido de tratamento com a solução de bicarbonato de sódio 10% por 5 min; G5: clareamento com HP seguido de tratamento com hidrogel de ascorbato de sódio 10% por 15 min. O HP foi aplicado duas vezes (20 min cada, com exceção do grupo G1) e então as restaurações adesivas foram realizadas. Após 24 h, os espécimes foram seccionados em palitos e submetidos ao teste de resistência de união a uma velocidade de 0,5 mm/min (n=12). As superfícies de esmalte de G1 e G2 foram avaliadas com microscopia eletrônica de varredura para fins de análise visual complementar. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA a um critério (p<0,05). As medias (desvio-padrão) foram: G1: 24,22±7,74; G2: 18,29±5,88; G3: 40,88±7,95; G4: 19,95±5,67 e G5: 24,43±6,43. Falhas adesivas foram predominantes em todos os grupos. A comparação entre os diferentes tratamentos indica que esperar 7 dias após o clareamento é ainda a abordagem mais eficaz. Nos casos em que este período de espera não é possível, a aplicação do ascorbato de sódio e do bicarbonate de sódio parecem ser boas alternativas. Entretanto, a praticidade na obtenção da solução de bicarbonato de sódio nos kits de clareamento e sua maior estabilidade favorecem o seu uso clínico.
ABSTRACT Objective This study investigated the effect of the fluorescent dye rhodamine B (RB) for interfacial micromorphology analysis of dental composite restorations on water sorption/solubility (WS/WSL) and microtensile bond strength to dentin (µTBS) of a 3-step total etch and a 2-step self-etch adhesive system. Material and Methods The adhesives Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (MP) and Clearfil SE Bond (SE) were mixed with 0.1 mg/mL of RB. For the WS/WSL tests, cured resin disks (5.0 mm in diameter x 0.8 mm thick) were prepared and assigned into four groups (n=10): MP, MP-RB, SE, and SE-RB. For µTBS assessment, extracted human third molars (n=40) had the flat occlusal dentin prepared and assigned into the same experimental groups (n=10). After the bonding and restoration procedures, specimens were sectioned in rectangular beams, stored in water and tested after seven days or after 12 months. The failure mode of fractured specimens was qualitatively evaluated under optical microscope (x40). Data from WS/WSL and µTBS were assessed by one-way and three-way ANOVA, respectively, and Tukey’s test (α=5%). Results RB increased the WSL of MP and SE. On the other hand, WS of both MP and SE was not affected by the addition of RB. No significance in µTBS between MP and MP-RB for seven days or one year was observed, whereas for SE a decrease in the µTBS means occurred in both storage times. Conclusions RB should be incorporated into non-simplified DBSs with caution, as it can interfere with their physical-mechanical properties, leading to a possible misinterpretation of bonded interface.
Laser irradiation after the immediate application of dentin bonding systems (DBSs) and prior to their polymerization has been proposed to increase bond strength. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diode laser irradiation (λ = 970 nm) on simplified DBSs through microtensile bond strength tests. Forty healthy human molars were randomly distributed among four groups (n = 10) according to DBSs used [Adper™ SingleBond 2 (SB) and Adper™ EasyOne (EO)], and the respective groups were irradiated with a diode laser (SB-L and EO-L). After bonding procedures and composite resin build-ups, teeth were stored in deionized water for 7 days and then sectioned to obtain stick-shaped specimens (1.0 mm2). The microtensile test was performed at 0.5 mm/min, yielding bond strength values in MPa, which were evaluated by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05) for individual comparisons. For both adhesive systems, diode laser irradiation promoted significant increases in bond strength values (SB: 33.49 ± 6.77; SB-L: 43.69 ± 8.15; EO: 19.67 ± 5.86; EO-L: 29.87 ± 6.98). These results suggest that diode laser irradiation is a promising technique for achieving better performance of adhesive systems on dentin.
Increased surface roughness and wear of resin cements may cause failure of indirect restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the surface roughness change and the vertical wear of four resin cements subjected to mechanical toothbrushing abrasion. Ten rectangular specimens (15 × 5 × 4 mm) were fabricated according to manufacturer instructions for each group (n = 10): Nexus 3, Kerr (NX3); RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE (ARC); RelyX U100, 3M ESPE (U100); and Variolink II, Ivoclar/Vivadent (VL2). Initial roughness (Ra, µm) was obtained through 5 readings with a roughness meter. Specimens were then subjected to toothbrushing abrasion (100,000 cycles), and further evaluation was conducted for final roughness. Vertical wear (µm) was quantified by 3 readings of the real profile between control and brushed surfaces. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, followed by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05). The Pearson correlation test was performed between the surface roughness change and wear (p < 0.05). The mean values of initial/final roughness (Ra, µm)/wear (µm) were as follows: NX3 (0.078/0.127/23.175); ARC (0.086/0.246/20.263); U100 (0.296/0.589/16.952); and VL2 (0.313/0.512/22.876). Toothbrushing abrasion increased surface roughness and wear of all resin cements tested, although no correlation was found between those variables. Vertical wear was similar among groups; however, it was considered high and may lead to gap formation in indirect restorations.
The concern with the polymerization shrinkage of restorative resin composites also applies to resin cements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of volume and polymerization mode on forces generated during polymerization shrinkage (FGPS) of resin cements. Two light-cured resin cements - Variolink II (VL; Ivoclar Vivadent) and Nexus 3 (NX; Kerr) - and two self-cured resin cements - Multilink (ML; Ivoclar Vivadent) and Cement Post (CP; Angelus) - were inserted between two rectangular steel bases (6x2 mm) with distance set at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mm, establishing a variation of volume. These steel bases were attached to a universal test machine with 50 kg load cell and forces (N) were registered for 10 min. Values of maximum forces generated by each material were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test for individual comparisons (α=0.05). VL, NX and CP developed increasing FGPS as the volume of material increased, while ML presented the opposite behavior. It may be concluded that higher volume increases FGPS even with a concomitant decrease of C-factor, unless the resin cements present lower force generation rates as a function of time in combination with a low C-factor, resulting in stress relief and consequently lower values of FGPS.
Preocupação com a contração de polimerização de resinas compostas restauradoras também tem sido associada aos cimentos resinosos. O objetivo deste artigo foi avaliar a influência do volume e do modo de polimerização sobre as forças geradas durante a contração de polimerização (FGPS) de cimentos resinosos. Dois cimentos de ativação dual: Variolink II (VL - Ivoclar Vivadent) e Nexus 3 (NX - Kerr) e dois de ativação química: Multilink (ML - Ivoclar Vivadent) e Cement Post (CP - Angelus) foram inseridos entre as duas bases de aço retangulares (6x2 mm) com a distância ajustada em 0,1, 0,3 e 0,5 mm, estabelecendo uma variação no volume. Estas bases de aço foram fixadas a uma máquina de teste universal (Emic DL 500, com célula de carga de 50 kg) e as forças (N) foram registradas por 10 min. Os valores máximos de tensões geradas por cada material foram submetidas à ANOVA a dois critérios, seguido do teste de Tukey (p<0,05) para comparações individuais. VL, NX e CP desenvolveram maiores FGPS quando o volume de material aumentou, enquanto ML apresentou o comportamento inverso. Maiores volumes aumentam as FGPS mesmo com redução concomitante do Fator-C, a menos que o cimento resinoso apresente uma baixa taxa de geração de força em função do tempo associado a um baixo Fator-C, o que resulta em alívio das tensões e consequentemente menores valores de FGPS.