Resumo Fundamento: A apneia obstrutiva do sono (AOS) é um transtorno crônico, progressivo, com alta morbimortalidade e associado às doenças cardiovasculares (DCV), entre elas a insuficiência cardíaca (IC). As alterações fisiopatológicas relacionadas com a AOS podem impactar diretamente a função diastólica do ventrículo esquerdo. Objetivo: Estimar a associação entre risco de AOS, avaliada pelo Questionário de Berlim (QB), e parâmetros do ecocardiograma, relacionados com a função diastólica, em indivíduos sem IC na atenção primária. Métodos: Estudo transversal que incluiu 354 indivíduos (51% mulheres) com idade igual ou superior a 45 anos. Todos os indivíduos selecionados foram submetidos a uma avaliação que constou dos seguintes procedimentos: consulta, preenchimento do QB e exame clínico, realização de exames laboratoriais e ecocardiograma Doppler transtorácico (EDT). Os dados contínuos são apresentados em medianas e intervalos interquartílicos e os categóricos em frequências absolutas e relativas. As variáveis que apresentaram associação ao risco de AOS em nível de 0,05 integraram os modelos de regressão gama com função de ligação log link. Análise bruta: Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado como indicador de significância estatística. Resultados: Dos 354 indivíduos analisados, 63% foram classificados como tendo alto risco para AOS. Os pacientes com alto risco para AOS apresentam alterações significativas dos parâmetros que avaliam a função diastólica. Alto risco para AOS confirmou sua associação positiva e estatisticamente significativa, após ajuste, a indicadores de disfunção diastólica - VAE-i (p = 0,02); E’/A’ (p < 0,01); A (p = 0,02); E/A (p < 0,01). Conclusão: Nossos dados mostram que pacientes com alto risco de AOS apresentam piora dos parâmetros de função diastólica medidos pelo EDT.
Abstract Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic progressive disorder with high mortality and morbidity rate, associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially heart failure (HF). The pathophysiological changes related to OSA can directly affect the diastolic function of the left ventricle. Objectives: To assess the association of the risk of OSA, evaluated by the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ), and echocardiographic (ECHO) parameters related to diastolic dysfunction in individuals without HF assisted in primary care. Methods: A cross-sectional study that included 354 individuals (51% women) aged 45 years or older. All individuals selected were submitted to an evaluation that included the following procedures: consultation, filling out the BQ, clinical examination, laboratory examination and transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TDE). Continuous data are presented as medians and interquartile intervals, and categoric variables in absolute and relative frequencies. The variables associated with risk of OSA and at the 0.05 level integrated the gamma regression models with a log link function. A value of p < 0.05 was considered an indicator of statistical significance. Exclusion criteria were presence of HF, to fill out the BQ and patients with hypertension and obesity not classified as high risk for OSA by other criteria. All individuals were evaluated on a single day with the following procedures: medical appointment, BQ, laboratory tests and ECHO. Results: Of the 354 individuals assessed, 63% were classified as having high risk for OSA. The patients with high risk for OSA present significantly abnormal diastolic function parameters. High risk for OSA confirmed positive and statistically significant association, after adjustments, with indicators of diastolic function, such as indexed left atrium volume LAV-i (p = 0.02); E’/A’ (p < 0.01), A (p = 0.02), E/A (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Our data show that patients at high risk for OSA present worsened diastolic function parameters measured by TDE.
Abstract Background: The study is based on the fact that left atrial (LA) volume measurement is a marker of the presence of diastolic dysfunction and that Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with ventricular remodeling, worsening of left ventricular (LV) diastolic and systolic function, and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Objective: To evaluate whether LAV changes are related to vitamin D deficiency. Method: A cross-sectional, population-based, unicentric study in which 640 patients over 45 years of age enrolled in the Niterói's Médico de Família program, RJ, were evaluated. Patients were submitted to tissue Doppler echocardiography to evaluate the parameters of diastolic and systolic function and vitamin D dosage. The presence or absence of hypovitaminosis D associated with structural and functional cardiac changes was compared between each group. A p < 0.05 value was considered as an indicator of statistical significance. Results: Of the 640 individuals analyzed, hypovitaminosis D was confirmed in 39.2% of the patients, of whom 34.8% had diastolic dysfunction. The most relevant echocardiographic parameters that were statistically significant were non-indexed AEDs and LAV, E'/A' and E wave deceleration time, which were associated with the presence of hypovitaminosis D (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The study of the association of hypovitaminosis D and the appearance of structural and functional cardiac abnormalities may contribute to the discussion of the adoption of one more criterion to select individuals at risk of developing clinical cardiac insufficiency in primary care since, with the use of echocardiography, the subclinical condition of cardiac involvement, with prognostic and treatment implications for the referred patients with hypovitaminosis D, can be identified early.