Abstract In the present study we compared the effects of the selective COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib with those of the classical non-selective NSAID diclofenac on the inflammatory process and alveolar bone loss in an experimental model of periodontitis in rats. Ninety male Holtzman rats (250 g) were randomly sorted into four experimental groups: Sham+CMC and Ligature+CMC (control) groups which received 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) solution; Ligature+Diclofenac and Ligature+Etoricoxib groups which received Potassium Diclofenac and Etoricoxib, respectively, suspended in 0.5% CMC (10 mg/kg/day). At 7, 14 and 21 days after placing ligatures in the cervical region of both the lower right and left first molars, the animals were euthanized. At the end of each period, the mandibles were collected for radiographic examination of alveolar bone loss. In addition, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament tissue samples were collected for COX-2 expression analysis and gingival tissues were collected for measurement of PGE2 contents. Animals with ligature-induced periodontal disease showed significant increased COX-2 gene expression at days 7, 14 and 21 (p<0.05) on alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. However, both treatments resulted in significantly reduced alveolar bone loss when compared to the untreated Ligature group (p<0.05), with no statistical difference between Etoricoxib and Diclofenac Potassium groups. This study shows that both drugs were able to reduce alveolar bone loss after periodontal disease induction.
Resumo No presente estudo nós comparamos os efeitos de um inibidor seletivo da COX-2 (etoricoxibe) com um anti-inflamatório não esteroidal não seletivo (AINE) (diclofenaco de potássio) no processo inflamatório e perda óssea alveolar em modelo de periodontite experimental. Noventa ratos Holtzman machos (250 g) foram randomizados em quatro grupos experimentais: Sham+CMC e Ligadura+CMC (controle) que receberam solução de carboximetilcelulose de sódio (CMC) a 0,5%; Ligadura+Diclofenaco e Ligadura+Etoricoxibe que receberam diclofenaco de potássio e etoricoxibe, respectivamente, suspensos em CMC 0,5% (10 mg/kg/dia). 7, 14 e 21 dias após colocação de ligadura bilateral na região cevical dos primeiros molares inferiores, os animais foram submetidos à eutanásia. No fim de cada período, as mandíbulas foram coletadas para exame radiográfico de perda óssea alveolar. Em adição, osso alveolar e ligamento periodontal foram coletados para determinar a expressão da enzima COX-2, e o tecido gengival foi coletado para determinar a expressão de PGE2. Animais submetidos à indução da doença periodontal pela ligadura (Grupo Ligadura) apresentaram um aumento significativo da expressão gênica de COX-2 nos dias 7, 14 e 21 (p<0,05). Todavia, ambos os tratamentos resultaram em uma significativa redução da perda óssea alveolar em comparação ao grupo Ligadura (p<0,05). Esse estudo mostrou que ambos os fármacos foram capazes de reduzir a perda óssea alveolar após indução da doença periodontal.
Abstract Periodontal research involves the use of animal models to better understand the biological processes of periodontal diseases and the potential of new or existing therapies. Currently, ligature-induced periodontitis in rats is the main model used in periodontal research, in this model, alveolar bone loss (ABL) is the main parameter evaluated by radiographic, morphometric, and histological techniques. Interestingly, although these methodologies are widely used, it is not totally clarified neither the kinetics of ABL over the induction time nor the agreement degree (repeatability and reproducibility) of these techniques. Objective: To characterize ABL kinetics at 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 60 days after ABL induction by ligature and to evaluate the intra- (repeatability) and inter-examiner (reproducibility) agreement and the correlation among the radiographic, morphometric, and histological methodologies. Material and Methods: 60 male Wistar rats with induced ABL were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 10 animals/group). After 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 60 days, the animals were euthanized and their hemimandibles were removed for ABL determination using radiographic, morphometric and histological techniques. Results: Radiographic and morphometric/linear techniques allowed the detection of statistically significant ABL on the third day, while histological and morphometric/area techniques could only detect ABL after the seventh day (ANOVA/Tukey, p<0.05). After the fifteenth day, except for histological analysis, the ABL was stabilized. Concerning the agreement of the methodologies, Bland Altman's test (intra and inter-examiner evaluations) showed no difference among the measurements (p>0.05). In addition, high correlations (Pearson's test, r2>0.9, p<0.05) were observed. Conclusion: The results indicated that the minimum time for ABL induction could vary from 3 to 7 days, according to the chosen analysis methodology. Agreement and correlation data support the comparison of results between studies with same induction time.
Abstract The consumption of low-dose aspirin (LDA) to prevent cardiovascular disease continues to increase worldwide. Consequently, the number of chronic LDA users seeking dental procedures that require complementary acute anti-inflammatory medication has also grown. Considering the lack of literature evaluating this interaction, we analyzed the gastric and renal effects caused by a selective COX-2 inhibitor (etoricoxib) and a non-selective COX-2 inhibitor (ibuprofen) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in rats receiving chronic LDA therapy. Male Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups (carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) - vehicle; LDA; LDA + ibuprofen; ibuprofen; LDA + etoricoxib; and etoricoxib) and submitted to long-term LDA therapy with a subsequent NSAID administration for three days by gavage. After the experimental period, we analyzed gastric and renal tissues and quantified serum creatinine levels. The concomitant use of LDA with either NSAID induced the highest levels of gastric damage when compared to the CMC group (F = 20.26, p < 0.05). Treatment with either LDA or etoricoxib alone was not associated with gastric damage. No significant damage was observed on kidney morphology and function (F = 0.5418, p > 0.05). These results suggest that even the acute use of an NSAID (regardless of COX-2 selectivity) can induce gastric damage when combined with the long-term use of low-dose aspirin in an animal model. Additional studies, including clinical assessments, are thus needed to clarify this interaction, and clinicians should be careful of prescribing NSAIDs to patients using LDA.