Abstract This study aimed to assess whether the reductions in serum urea and creatinine levels are different from the reductions in salivary urea and creatinine levels that occur after hemodialysis in chronic renal patients. The systematic review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database. Eight databases were searched to identify pretest-posttest studies of chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis, with no language or year restrictions. The JBI Critical Appraisal Tool was used to assess the risk of bias. Meta-analyses using random-effect models were conducted to compare salivary and serum correlations and to pooled mean and proportion differences from pre- to posthemodialysis urea and creatinine levels by subgroup analysis. The I2 test was used to assess heterogeneity, and a meta-regression was performed to statistically assess correlations and differences in the pooled effects pre- and postdialysis. The Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the certainty of evidence. The search resulted in 1404 records, and only six studies (n = 252 participants) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included. The studies were published between 2013 and 2018. All studies showed a significant reduction in both salivary and serum urea/creatinine levels. All eligible studies presented a low risk of bias. The meta-analysis shows a moderate to high correlation between salivary and blood levels of urea (r: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.56-1.00) and creatinine (r: 0.64; 95%CI: 0.16–1.00), with a very low level of certainty. The reductions in salivary urea and creatinine levels are similar to and correlated with the reductions in blood urea and creatine levels after hemodialysis among chronic kidney disease patients.
Abstract In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.
AbstractObjective To evaluate the effect of staining beverages (coffee, orange juice, and red wine) on the Vickers hardness and surface roughness of the base (BL) and enamel (EL) layers of improved artificial teeth (Vivodent and Trilux).Material and Methods Specimens (n=8) were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h and then submitted to the tests. Afterwards, specimens were immersed in one of the staining solutions or distilled water (control) at 37°C, and the tests were also performed after 15 and 30 days of immersion. Data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05).Results Vivodent teeth exhibited a continuous decrease (p<0.0005) in hardness of both layers for up to 30 days of immersion in all solutions. For Trilux teeth, similar results were found for the EL (p<0.004), and the BL showed a decrease in hardness after 15 days of immersion (p<0.01). At the end of 30 days, this reduction was not observed for coffee and water (p>0.15), but red wine and orange juice continuously reduced hardness values (p<0.0004). Red wine caused the most significant hardness changes, followed by orange juice, coffee, and water (p<0.006). No significant differences in roughness were observed for both layers of the teeth during the immersion period, despite the beverage (p>0.06).Conclusions Hardness of the two brands of acrylic teeth was reduced by all staining beverages, mainly for red wine. Roughness of both layers of the teeth was not affected by long-term immersion in the beverages.