Abstract: There is a lack of evidence about the best approach for cavitated caries lesions with the possibility of pulpal involvement in primary teeth. Thus, the present authors aimed to verify the best treatment for deep caries lesions with or without pulp involvement in primary teeth. The search was conducted in MEDLINE/Pubmed and Web of Science databases until May 2020. Studies that compared techniques to manage deep caries lesions with at least 12 months of follow-up were included. The risk of bias was evaluated using the RoB tool. Network meta-analysis and pairwise meta-analyses were conducted considering the treatment clinical success as an outcome, according to the pulp health condition. From 491 potentially eligible studies, 9 were included. For deep caries lesions with pulp vitality, the Hall Technique presented the highest probability of success (78%). In the event of accidental pulp exposure, pulpectomy presented a 76% chance of providing the best clinical results. For pulp necrosis, no difference was observed between a pulpectomy and non-instrumented endodontic treatment (RR = 0.69; 95%CI: 0.21–2.33) Thus, it was concluded that the Hall Technique may be a better option for deep caries lesions with pulp vitality. In cases of accidental pulp exposure of vital teeth during caries removal, a pulpectomy may be considered the best option. However, there are insufficient studies to build up evidence about the best treatment option when irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis is present.
Abstract In this study, we evaluated the physicochemical properties (PCP; radiopacity, flow, pH, and solubility) and the quality of root canal filling provided by an experimental industrialized paste (EP), with the same active ingredients as those of the Guedes Pinto paste, compared with the Vitapex® paste. PCP were analyzed according to the ANSI/ADA laboratory testing methods for endodontic filling and sealing materials. To analyze filling capacity, 120 artificial primary teeth (60 maxillary incisors [MIs] and 60 mandibulary molars [MMs]) were endodontically treated. The teeth were divided into eight groups based on the dental group (MIs or MMs), filling material (Vitapex® or EP), and insertion method (syringe or lentulo). The Image J® software was used to analyze the initial an final digital radiographies of each tooth, measuring and comparing root canal and void areas. The percentage of filling failure areas was obtained. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test of mean comparison. Regarding PCP, both pastes presented results according the ANSI/ADA standards. Flow capacity: Vitapex: 19.6 mm, EP: 25 mm (p < 0.01); radiopacity: Vitapex: 4.47 mmAl, EP: 6.06 mmAl (p < 0.01); pH after 28 days: Vitapex: 7.79, EP: 8.19 (p = 0.12); and solubility after 28 days: Vitapex: 2.68%, EP: 2.89% (p > 0.05). Regarding filling capacity analysis, EP demonstrated 12.5% of failure against 31.5% of Vitapex (p < 0.01). Compared to Vitapex, EP presented statistically significantly better results in flow, radiopacity, pH, and filling capacity. Molars presented more filling failures than incisors. The insertion method using a syringe and a thin tip was significantly better than that using Lentulo spiral carriers.
Abstract Dental trauma in immature permanent teeth can damage pulp vascularization, which leads to necrosis and cessation of apexogenesis. Studies on tissue engineering using stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have yielded promising results. Laser phototherapy (LPT) is able to influence the proliferation and differentiation of these cells, which could improve tissue engineering. SHEDs (eighth passage) were seeded into 96-well culture plates (103 cells/well) and were grown in culture medium supplemented with 15% defined fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 12 h. After determining the appropriate nutrition deficiency status (5% FBS), the cells were assigned into four groups: 1) G1 – 15% FBS (positive control); 2) G2 – 5% FBS (negative control); 3) G3 – 5% FBS+LPT 3 J/cm2; and 4) G4 – 5% FBS+LPT 5 J/cm2. For the LPT groups, two laser irradiations at 6 h intervals were performed using a continuous wave InGaAlP diode laser (660 nm, with a spot size of 0.028 cm2, 10 mW) in punctual and contact mode. Cell viability was assessed via an MTT reduction assay immediately after the second laser irradiation (0 h) and 24, 48, and 72 h later. We found that G3 and G4 presented a significantly higher cell growth rate when compared with G2 (p < 0.01). Moreover, G4 exhibited a similar cell growth rate as G1 throughout the entire experiment (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that LPT with 5 J/cm2 can enhance the growth of SHEDs during situations of nutritional deficiency. Therefore, LPT could be a valuable adjunct treatment in tissue engineering when using stem cells derived from the dental pulp of primary teeth.
Root canal preparation is an important step in endodontic treatment. The anatomical complexity of the middle third of the root compromises the effective cleaning of this area. Thus, advances have been made in instrumentation techniques and instruments for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of three different instrumentation systems on the enlargement of the middle thirds of root canals in mandibular incisors. The preparation methods used were the reciprocating systems Reciproc (Group I) and WaveOne (Group II) and the oscillatory system Tilos (Group III). Comparisons were made by three-dimensional image reconstruction with cone-beam computed tomography before and after instrumentation. Changes in area, perimeter, centering ability, and pattern of preparation were analyzed. The results were subjected to ANOVA complemented by the Tukey’s test. Changes in area, perimeter, and tendency of transportation showed similar results among groups. The transportation index of the Tilos system was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Qualitative analysis of the preparation pattern showed that the Tilos system had a more uniform preparation, although Reciproc and WaveOne preparations appeared more rounded, incompatible with the original canal anatomy. There was similarity in the systems’ performance on flattened areas, although the Tilos system presented a better pattern of root canal preparation and a lower index of transportation.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation on intracanal dentin surface by SEM analysis and its interference in the apical seal of filled canals. After endodontic treatment procedures, 34 maxillary human incisors were randomly assigned to 2 groups. In the negative control group (n=17), no additional treatment was performed and teeth were filled with vertically condensed gutta-percha; in the laser-treated group (n=17), the root canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz) before filling as described for the control group. Two specimens of each group were prepared for SEM analysis to evaluate the presence and extent of morphological changes and removal of debris; the other specimens were immersed in 0.5% methylene blue dye (pH 7.2) for 24 h for evaluation of the linear dye leakage at the apical third. SEM analysis of the laser-treated group showed dentin fusion and resolidification without smear layer or debris. The Student’s t-test showed that the laser-treated group had significantly less leakage in apical third than the control group. Within the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that the morphological changes on the apical intraradicular dentin surface caused by Nd:YAG laser resulted in less linear dye apical leakage.