Abstract Blood samples from 330 lizards of 19 species were collected to investigate the occurrence of haemoparasites. Samplings were performed in areas of upland (terra-firme) forest adjacent to Manaus municipality, Amazonas, Brazil. Blood parasites were detected in 220 (66%) lizards of 12 species and comprised four major groups: Apicomplexa (including haemogregarines, piroplasms, and haemosporidians), trypanosomatids, microfilarid nematodes and viral or bacterial organisms. Order Haemosporida had the highest prevalence, with 118 (35%) animals from 11 species. For lizard species, Uranoscodon superciliosus was the most parasitised host, with 103 (87%; n = 118) positive individuals. This species also presented the highest parasite diversity, with the occurrence of six taxa. Despite the difficulties attributed by many authors regarding the use of morphological characters for taxonomic resolution of haemoparasites, our low-cost approach using light microscopy recorded a high prevalence and diversity of blood parasite taxa in a relatively small number of host species. This report is the first survey of haemoparasites in lizards in the study region. It revealed a high diversity of lizard haemoparasites and highlights the need to understand their impacts on hosts.
Abstract: Most species of Amazonian snakes have wide geographic distributions. However, local environmental factors influence the formation of assemblages in different localities. In this study, we investigated the composition of the assemblage and the effect of environmental variables on the distribution of the species inhabiting an upland forest in the Experimental Farm area of the Federal University of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil. Data collection was carried out in 24 standardized plots. Each plot was sampled four times between July 2015 and April 2017 by active search method. We recorded 83 individuals from 29 species belonging to six families. The richness in the study area corresponded to 78% of the snake species and 100% of the families previously recorded for Manaus. As observed in other localities, the most abundant species was the Amazonian lancehead (Bothrops atrox). Multiple linear regression models did not detect any effect of environmental variables on species richness and abundance of individuals. However, quadratic polynomial regression models revealed that intermediate canopy opening percentages positively influence the richness and abundance of snakes. It is possible that the result is related to a tradeoff between the thermoregulation behavior of these animals and to their susceptibility to predation.