Scorpion venom neurotoxins are responsible for toxicity and pharmacological effects. They are active in sodium and potassium channels leading to an increase in the release of neurotransmitters, such as glutamate. Glutamate is found in large quantities in the hippocampus (HPC) and is involved in the long-term potentiation (LTP) induction. The HPC is known to be related to certain kinds of memory. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of Tityus serrulatus TS-8F toxin on rat behavior with emphasis on learning and memory. We analyzed the effects of different doses of TS-8F on rat behavior in home cages, open-field (habituation), inhibitory avoidance, T-maze, and hippocampus morphology. In the first two experiments, 0.05µg/animal dose of TS-8F did not cause convulsion but led to a decrease in locomotion (LO) frequency in the open-field first session. During the second session, rats receiving 0.03µg/animal TS-8F showed a decrease in LO and rearing frequency (RE); controls only showed decreased LO; and those receiving 0.05µg/animal showed no significant changes. In inhibitory avoidance, T-maze, and HPC morphology experiments no significant differences were observed. It is concluded that TS-8F may exert some influence in rat learning and memory and seems to be useful as a pharmacological tool. Further research is required to elucidate all possible uses of this toxin.