Resumo Objetivos: este estudo revisou sistematicamente a literatura para melhor compreender a associação entre COVID-19, gravidez e neonatos. Métodos: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, BVS e SCOPUS foram acessadas, considerando os termos: (covid 19 OR covid-19 OR novel coronavirus OR 2019 novel coronavirus OR 2019-nCoV OR sarscov 2 OR sars-cov-2 OR sarscov2 OR sars cov-2) AND (pregnancy OR pregnant OR pregnant women OR gestation OR gestational) AND (infant OR fetal OR neonatal). Trinta textos completos foram incluídos (408 gestantes, 11 mulheres nãogestantes e 279 recém-nascidos). Resultados: febre (45,83%) e tosse (31,61%) foram os principais sintomas da COVID-19 durante a gestação. Baixos níveis de linfócitos (32,10%), elevados níveis de proteínas Creativa (32,35%); leucocitose (29,41%); neutrófilo (5,88%); e alterações radiográficas sob tomografia computadorizada de tórax, radiografia ou ultrasom (45,84%) foram os principais achados laboratoriais. Parto por cesárea e prematuridade foram registrados em 239 e 49 casos, respectivamente. Dez recém-nascidos testaram positivo para o virus SARS-CoV-2. Conclusão: quando a pneumonia COVID-19 afeta mulheres durante a gravidez, os sintomas são semelhantes aos experimentados por mulheres não grávidas. Além disso, ainda não há evidências plausíveis que sugiram a transmissão vertical do vírus SARS-CoV-2 de mãe para filho.
Abstract Objectives: this study systematically reviewed the literature in order to better understand the association among COVID-19, pregnancy and neonates. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, BVS and SCOPUS were assessed, considering the terms: (covid 19 OR covid-19 OR novel coronavirus OR 2019 novel coronavirus OR 2019-nCoV OR sarscov 2 OR sars-cov-2 OR sarscov2 OR sars cov-2) AND (pregnancy OR pregnant OR pregnant women OR gestation OR gestational) AND (infant OR fetal OR neonatal). Thirty full-text were included (408 pregnant women, 11 non-pregnant women and 279 neonates). Results: fever (45.83%) and cough (31.61%) were the main symptoms of COVID-19 during the pregnancy. Low levels of lymphocytes (32.10%), elevated levels of C-reactive protein (32.35%); leukocytosis (29.41%); neutrophil (5.88%); and radiographic alterations on chest CT, x-ray or ultrasound (45.84%) were the main laboratorial findings. Cesarean delivery and preterm were registered in 239 and 49 cases, respectively. Ten neonates tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion: when COVID-19 pneumonia affects women during pregnancy, the symptoms are similar to those experienced by non-pregnant women. In addition, there is still no plausible evidence suggesting vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus from mother to child.
Abstract Objective: To describe fluid resuscitation practices in Brazilian intensive care units and to compare them with those of other countries participating in the Fluid-TRIPS. Methods: This was a prospective, international, cross-sectional, observational study in a convenience sample of intensive care units in 27 countries (including Brazil) using the Fluid-TRIPS database compiled in 2014. We described the patterns of fluid resuscitation use in Brazil compared with those in other countries and identified the factors associated with fluid choice. Results: On the study day, 3,214 patients in Brazil and 3,493 patients in other countries were included, of whom 16.1% and 26.8% (p < 0.001) received fluids, respectively. The main indication for fluid resuscitation was impaired perfusion and/or low cardiac output (Brazil: 71.7% versus other countries: 56.4%, p < 0.001). In Brazil, the percentage of patients receiving crystalloid solutions was higher (97.7% versus 76.8%, p < 0.001), and 0.9% sodium chloride was the most commonly used crystalloid (62.5% versus 27.1%, p < 0.001). The multivariable analysis suggested that the albumin levels were associated with the use of both crystalloids and colloids, whereas the type of fluid prescriber was associated with crystalloid use only. Conclusion: Our results suggest that crystalloids are more frequently used than colloids for fluid resuscitation in Brazil, and this discrepancy in frequencies is higher than that in other countries. Sodium chloride (0.9%) was the crystalloid most commonly prescribed. Serum albumin levels and the type of fluid prescriber were the factors associated with the choice of crystalloids or colloids for fluid resuscitation.
RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as práticas de ressuscitação volêmica em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras e compará-las com as de outros países participantes do estudo Fluid-TRIPS. Métodos: Este foi um estudo observacional transversal, prospectivo e internacional, de uma amostra de conveniência de unidades de terapia intensiva de 27 países (inclusive o Brasil), com utilização da base de dados Fluid-TRIPS compilada em 2014. Descrevemos os padrões de ressuscitação volêmica utilizados no Brasil em comparação com os de outros países e identificamos os fatores associados com a escolha dos fluidos. Resultados: No dia do estudo, foram incluídos 3.214 pacientes do Brasil e 3.493 pacientes de outros países, dos quais, respectivamente, 16,1% e 26,8% (p < 0,001) receberam fluidos. A principal indicação para ressuscitação volêmica foi comprometimento da perfusão e/ou baixo débito cardíaco (Brasil 71,7% versus outros países 56,4%; p < 0,001). No Brasil, a percentagem de pacientes que receberam soluções cristaloides foi mais elevada (97,7% versus 76,8%; p < 0,001), e solução de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% foi o cristaloide mais comumente utilizado (62,5% versus 27,1%; p < 0,001). A análise multivariada sugeriu que os níveis de albumina se associaram com o uso tanto de cristaloides quanto de coloides, enquanto o tipo de prescritor dos fluidos se associou apenas com o uso de cristaloides. Conclusão: Nossos resultados sugerem que cristaloides são usados mais frequentemente do que coloides para ressuscitação no Brasil, e essa discrepância, em termos de frequências, é mais elevada do que em outros países. A solução de cloreto de sódio 0,9% foi o cristaloide mais frequentemente prescrito. Os níveis de albumina sérica e o tipo de prescritor de fluidos foram os fatores associados com a escolha de cristaloides ou coloides para a prescrição de fluidos.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o crescimento e desenvolvimento maxilar de crianças com fissuras orais por meio de um método inovador da técnica de sobreposição 3D-3D. Participaram do estudo crianças com fissura unilateral completa de lábio (FL) e fissura unilateral de lábio e palato (FLP). As moldagens dos arcos dentários foram realizadas 1 dia antes e 1 ano após o reparo cirúrgico labial. Um scanner a laser 3D digitalizou os modelos dentários e o software do sistema de estereofotogrametria analisou as sobreposições 3D-3D em dois grupos correspondentes (mesmo indivíduo, FL e FLP) e um grupo não-correspondente (indivíduos diferentes). As diferenças foram avaliadas pelo Root Mean Square (RMS) e expressas em milímetros (mm). O teste de Kruskal-Wallis seguido do teste post-hoc de Dunn e teste de MannWhitney foram avaliados para comparar os grupos (α=5%). RMS foi de 1.34 mm (± 0.37) no grupo FL, 1.41 mm (± 0.32) no grupo FLP e 3.38 mm (± 1.28) no grupo não-correspondente. RMS foi significativamente maior no grupo não-correspondente (p <0.0001). Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os gêneros. A técnica de sobreposição 3D-3D evidenciou o desenvolvimento da maxila após a cirurgia labial na região anterior do palato. Assim, sugere-se que a amplitude da fenda e a proporção dos segmentos palatinos influenciam na heterogeneidade morfológica e, consequentemente, no desenvolvimento e crescimento maxilar de crianças com fissura orofacial
Abstract This study aimed to analyze the maxillary growth and development of children with oral clefts using the innovative method of 3D-3D superimposition technique. Children with unilateral complete cleft lip (UCL) and unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) participated in the study. The impressions of the dental arches were executed 1 day before and 1 year after lip repair surgery. A 3D laser scanner digitized the dental models and the stereophotogrammetry system software analyzed the 3D-3D superimpositions in two groups of matches (same child, UCL and UCLP) and one group of mismatches (different individuals). The differences were evaluated by Root Mean Square (RMS) and expressed in millimeters (mm). Kruskal-Wallis test followed by post-hoc Dunn test and Mann-Whitney test were assessed to compare the groups (α=5%). RMS was 1.34 mm (± 0.37) in UCL group, 1.41 mm (± 0.32) in UCLP group, and 3.38 mm (± 1.28) in mismatches group. RMS was significantly greater in mismatches than in matches groups (p<0.0001). No statistically significant differences occurred between genders. The 3D-3D superimposition technique showed the maxillary development after lip repair surgery in the anterior region of the palate. Thus, it is suggested that the cleft amplitude and the palatal segments proportion influenced the morphological heterogeneity and, consequently, the development and maxillary growth of children with orofacial cleft.
Abstract Alternatives for the treatment of caries disease, such as minimally invasive approaches, have been developed in recent years. Objective: To carry out clinical and radiographic evaluations of three cavity liners after selective caries removal. Methodology: Thirty-six primary molars with deep occlusal caries lesions without pulp involvement (from children of both genders, aged between 5 and 8 years) were randomly divided into the following groups: calcium hydroxide cement (CHC) group; mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) group and Portland cement with added zirconium oxide (PCZ) group. The following-up period was 6- and 12-month. The clinical and radiographic success rates were evaluated through chi-square test. The radiographic measurements were compared by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results: Thirty-six patients were included, but thirty-four returned for 12-month follow-up. The overall success rate of the therapy for the three groups was 94.11% and no statistically significant differences occurred in the comparison among groups (p>0.05). Nineteen radiographs were selected to measure the dentin barrier thickness. The intragroup comparison presented a statistically significant increase of the dentin barrier for all groups, at 12-month follow-up. However, the MTA group showed increase of the dentin barrier, over time, 6- to 12-month follow-up. The intergroup comparison revealed no statistically significant differences (p>0.05). Conclusion: The clinical and radiographic data showed that all cavity liners provided effective treatment of primary teeth after selective caries removal.
Abstract This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial effect of a bioadhesive chitosan-based oral membrane with chlorhexidine for local treatment of infections in the oral tissues. Five oral membranes of different compositions were tested: 5% chitosan (G1); 5% chitosan ± 0.2% chlorhexidine (G2), 5% chitosan ± 0.6% chlorhexidine (G3), 5% chitosan ± 1.0% chlorhexidine (G4), and 5% chitosan ± 2.0% chlorhexidine (G5). Also, five gel types were tested according to the following compositions: 5% chitosan gel (G6), 0.2% chlorhexidine gel (G7), 2.0% chlorhexidine gel (G8), 5% chitosan gel ± 0.2% chlorhexidine gel (G9), and 5% chitosan gel ± 2.0% chlorhexidine gel (G10). The antimicrobial action of the samples was tested against Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans through antibiogram by measuring the inhibition halos. Data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05). The 2.0% chlorhexidine membrane (G5) and the disks containing 2.0% chlorhexidine gel (G8) showed the greatest inhibition halos for both microorganisms, with statistically significant difference when compared to others tested groups (p=0.008) only for Candida albicans inhibitions results. All the other formulations of membranes and gels showed inhibition halos, but without statistically significant difference. The bioadhesive chitosan-based oral membrane with 2% chlorhexidine and 2% chlorhexidine gel were the most effective in inhibiting the tested microorganisms.
Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro o efeito antimicrobiano de uma bandagem oral bioadesiva de quitosana com clorexidina para o tratamento de infecções dos tecidos orais. Cinco bandagens de diferentes composições foram testadas: Quitosana 5% (G1); Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 0,2% (G2), Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 0,6% (G3), Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 1,0% (G4) e Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 2,0% (G5). Foram testados também 5 tipos de géis nas seguintes composições: Gel de Quitosana 5% (G6), Gel de clorexidina a 0,2% (G7), Gel de clorexidina a 2,0% (G8), Gel de Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 0,2% (G9) e Gel de Quitosana 5% ± clorexidina a 2,0% (G10). A ação antimicrobiana das amostras foi testada contra Candida albicans e Streptococcus mutans por meio do antibiograma, medindo o halo de inibição. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis e ANOVA a um critério seguido pelo teste de Tukey (p<0,05). A membrana com 2,0% de clorexidina (G5) e os discos contendo gel com 2,0% de clorexidina (G8) apresentaram os maiores halos de inibição para os dois microrganismos, com diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação aos demais grupos testados (p=0,008) apenas nos resultados de inibição de C. albicans. Todas as outras formulações de membranas e géis apresentaram halo de inibição, mas sem diferença estatisticamente significativa. A bandagem oral bioadesiva de quitosana com gel de 2% de clorexidina foi a mais efetiva em inibir os microrganismos testados.
Abstract Oral health problems can influence people's Quality of Life (QoL) because of pain, discomfort, limitations, and other esthetics problems, affecting their social life, feeding, daily activities, and the individual's well-being. Objective: To compare oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children with and without oral clefts and their families. Materials and Methods: 121 children aged from 2 to 6 years, from both sexes, enrolled in the treatment routine of the Pediatric Dentistry Clinics of a Dental School and a Hospital for Cleft Treatment were divided into two groups: Group 1 - children with cleft lip and palate; Group 2 - children without cleft lip and palate. The OHRQoL was assessed using the validated Portuguese version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS). The questionnaire was answered individually, only once, at a private place. Mann-Whitney U test was used to verify differences between groups. Spearman's Rho test was used to associate sex and age with quality of life. The level of significance was set at 5% (p<0.05). Results: According to the parents’ perception on the OHRQoL of children with and without cleft lip and palate, oral health of children with oral clefts (Group 1) had a statistically significant impact on OHRQoL. The correlation of sex with impact on OHRQoL did not show statistically significant differences. On the other hand, the higher the age the higher the impact on QoL. Conclusions: The group comparison revealed that the cleft lip and palate negatively impacted on OHRQoL of 2 to 6-year-old children and their parents.
Abstract Objectives This study shows the development and validation of a dental anesthesia-training simulator, specifically for the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB). The system developed provides the tactile sensation of inserting a real needle in a human patient, using Virtual Reality (VR) techniques and a haptic device that can provide a perceived force feedback in the needle insertion task during the anesthesia procedure. Material and Methods To simulate a realistic anesthesia procedure, a Carpule syringe was coupled to a haptic device. The Volere method was used to elicit requirements from users in the Dentistry area; Repeated Measures Two-Way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), Tukey post-hoc test and averages for the results’ analysis. A questionnaire-based subjective evaluation method was applied to collect information about the simulator, and 26 people participated in the experiments (12 beginners, 12 at intermediate level, and 2 experts). The questionnaire included profile, preferences (number of viewpoints, texture of the objects, and haptic device handler), as well as visual (appearance, scale, and position of objects) and haptic aspects (motion space, tactile sensation, and motion reproduction). Results The visual aspect was considered appropriate and the haptic feedback must be improved, which the users can do by calibrating the virtual tissues’ resistance. The evaluation of visual aspects was influenced by the participants’ experience, according to ANOVA test (F=15.6, p=0.0002, with p<0.01). The user preferences were the simulator with two viewpoints, objects with texture based on images and the device with a syringe coupled to it. Conclusion The simulation was considered thoroughly satisfactory for the anesthesia training, considering the needle insertion task, which includes the correct insertion point and depth, as well as the perception of tissues resistances during the insertion.
Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group) of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI – Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII – Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII – No chewing gum (control). Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day). After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm). Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p<0.05). Results The use of chewing gum (CPP and No CPP) resulted in lower erosive enamel loss compared with the control group (p<0.05). CPP-ACP chewing gum (CPP) did not improve the protection against erosive enamel loss compared with conventional chewing gum (No CPP) (p>0.05). Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.
Abstract This study aimed at monitoring the maxillary growth of children with cleft lip/palate in the first two years of life, and to evaluate the effects of primary surgeries on dental arch dimensions. The sample consisted of the three-dimensional digital models of 25 subjects with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and 29 subjects with isolated cleft palate (CP). Maxillary arch dimensions were measured at 3 months (before lip repair), 1 year (before palate repair), and at 2 years of age. Student’s ttest was used for comparison between the groups. Repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test was used to compare different treatment phases in the UCLP group. Paired ttest was used to compare different treatment phases in the CP group. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Decreased intercanine distance and anterior arch length were observed after lip repair in UCLP. After palate repair, maxillary dimensions increased significantly, except for the intercanine distance in UCLP and the intertuberosity distance in both groups. At the time of palate repair and at two years of age, the maxillary dimensions were very similar in both groups. It can be concluded that the maxillary arches of children with UCLP and CP changed as a result of primary surgery.
ABSTRACT Low-Level Laser Therapy stimulates the proliferation of a variety of types of cells. However, very little is known about its effect on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Objective This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different laser therapy energy densities on SHED viability and proliferation. Material and Methods SHED were irradiated according to the groups: I (1.2 J/cm2 - 0.5 mW – 10 s), II (2.5 J/cm2 – 10 mW – 10 s), III (3.7 J/cm2 – 15 mW – 10 s), IV (5.0 J/cm2 – 20 mW – 10 s), V (6.2 J/cm2 – 25 mW – 10 s), and VI (not irradiated – control group). Cell viability was assessed 6 and 24 h after irradiation measuring the mitochondrial activity and using the Crystal Violet assay. Cell proliferation was assessed after 24, 48, and 72 h of irradiation by SRB assay. Results MTT assay demonstrated differences from 6 to 24 hours after irradiation. After 24 h, groups I and IV showed higher absorbance values than those of control group. Crystal Violet assay showed statistically differences in the absorbance rate from 6 to 24 h after irradiation for groups III and VI. At 24 h after irradiation, Group III absorbance rate was greater than that of groups I, II, and IV. Group VI absorbance rate was greater than that of groups I and IV. SRB assay showed that the group I had higher rates than those of groups II, III, V, and VI, at 24 h after irradiation. After 48 h, group I exhibited the greatest cell proliferation rate followed by groups III, V, and VI. After 72 h, group III exhibited the lowest cell proliferation rate than those of groups II, IV, and V. Conclusions The Low-Level Laser Therapy energy densities used in this study did not cause loss of cell viability and stimulated SHED proliferation within the parameters described in this study.
Abstract In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare for 24 months, the retention and surface characteristics of two pit-and-fissure sealants: Helioseal Clear and Helioseal F (Ivoclar Vivadent). The correlation between the different stages of eruption and sealant retention was also verified. Fifty children aged 6 to 8 years participated in the study, totalizing 153 teeth divided into two groups: HC (Helioseal Clear) and HF (Helioseal F). After 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, a clinical examination was performed by previously calibrated examiners. The surface characteristics and the retention of the sealants (modified RYGE & SNYDER criteria) were assessed. Analyzing the occlusal surface, HC exhibited a statistically significant higher retention at 12 (p=0.0345) and 24 months (p=0.0076). Concerning the surface characteristics, only the superficial discoloration of HC was smaller than HF, during the entire studied period. For all the other characteristics, the results of the Mann-Whitney test were highly significant at different periods (p=0.0000 to 0.0421). The frequency of air bubbles within the sealant surfaces, determined by Chi-square test, was significantly higher in HF (p=0.000:12 and 18 months to p=0.002: 6 and 24 months). HC sealant material exhibited the best performance regarding the retention and surface characteristics on the occlusal surface.
Resumo Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar e comparar por 24 meses, a retenção e as características superficiais de dois diferentes materiais seladores, Helioseal Clear e Helioseal F(Ivoclar Vivadent). A correlação entre os diferentes graus de erupção e a retenção dos selantes também foram verificadas. Cinquenta crianças de 6 a 8 anos de idade participaram deste estudo, totalizando de 153 dentes divididos em dois grupos: HC (Helioseal Clear) e HF (Helioseal F). Após 6, 12, 18 e 24 meses, avaliação clínica foi realizada por dois examinadores calibrados. As caracterísiticas superficiais e a retenção (critério modificado de Ryge &Snyder) foram avaliadas. A análise da superfície oclusal, o HC demostrou retenção estatisticamente significante maior para os 12 meses (p=0,0345) e 24 meses (p=0,0076). Em relação às características superficiais, somente para descoloração superficial, o HC foi menor que do HF, durante o período estudado. Para as demais características, os resultados do teste de Mann-Whitney foram altamente significantes para HC em diferentes períodos (p=0,0000 a 0,0421). A frequência de bolhas nas superfícies seladas, determinada pelo teste do Qui-quadrado, foi maior e mais significante no HF (p=0,000:12 e 18 meses a p=0,002: 6 e 24 meses). O selante HC apresentou melhor desempenho à retenção e características superficiais.
The aim of this study was to measure and compare the dimensions of the dental arches on three-dimensional digital study models in children with and without cleft lip and palate before the primary surgery. The sample consisted of 223 digital models of children aged 3-9 months, divided into 5 groups: without craniofacial deformities, unilateral and bilateral incomplete cleft lip and alveolus, unilateral and bilateral complete cleft lip and alveolus, unilateral cleft lip and palate, and bilateral cleft lip and palate. Dental casts of the maxillary dental arches of the children were used. The dental casts underwent a process of scanning through 3D scanner and the measurements used for the correlation among groups were made on the scanned images. Statistical analysis was performed by t test and ANOVA followed by Tukey test. The results showed that the intercanine distance and anterior cleft width was wider in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate. The intertuberosity distances and posterior cleft width was wider in children with bilateral cleft lip and palate among the groups. Children with cleft lip and palate before the primary surgery had wider maxillary arch dimensions than the children without cleft lip and palate.
O propósito deste trabalho foi mensurar e comparar as dimensões dos arcos dentários em modelos digitais tridimensionais de crianças com ou sem fissuras de lábio e palato antes das cirurgias primárias. A amostra foi composta de 223 modelos de gesso de crianças, de 3 a 9 meses, divididas em 5 grupos: sem deformidades craniofaciais, fissura pré-forame incompleta, fissura pré-forame completa, fissura transforame unilateral e fissura transforame bilateral. Modelos de gesso dos arcos dentários superiores das crianças foram utilizados para avaliação. Os modelos passaram por um processo de digitalização, por meio de escâner 3D e as medidas utilizadas para a correlação entre os grupos foram realizadas diretamente nas imagens escaneadas. A análise estatística foi realizada por meio do teste t e ANOVA seguido pelo teste de Tukey. Os resultados mostraram que a distância intercaninos e a amplitude anterior da fissura foram maiores nas crianças com fissura transforame unilateral. A distância intertuberosidades e a amplitude posterior da fissura foi maior nas com fissura transforame bilateral entre os grupos estudados. As crianças com fissura de lábio e palato apresentam as dimensões dos arcos maxilares maiores que as crianças sem fissura labiopalatina antes das cirurgias primárias.
Ectodermal dysplasia is a rare congenital disease that affects several structures of ectodermal origin. The most commonly related oral characteristics are hypodontia, malformed teeth and underdeveloped alveolar ridges. New alternative treatments are needed due to the failure of the conventional prosthesis retention. This case report outlines the oral rehabilitation treatment of a 9-year-old girl with ectodermal dysplasia. The treatment was performed with conventional prosthesis upon mini-implants. The mini-implants provided prosthetic retention. The patient reported a good adaptation of the dental prosthesis and satisfaction with the treatment. The increased self-esteem improved the socialization skills of the girl. In this case report, use of prosthesis with mini-implants was satisfactory for prosthetic retention. However, clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed to test the mini-implants as an alternative for oral rehabilitation of children with ectodermal dysplasia.
A displasia ectodérmica é uma doença congênita rara, que afeta várias estruturas de origem ectodérmica. As principais características na cavidade oral são hipodontia, má formação dentária e subdesenvolvimento do rebordo alveolar. Devido às falhas de retenção das próteses convencionais, novas alternativas de tratamento são necessárias. Este relato de caso descreve o tratamento de reabilitação oral em uma menina de 9 anos de idade com displasia ectodérmica. O tratamento foi realizado com próteses dentárias convencionais sobre mini-implantes. Os mini-implantes promoveram a retenção da prótese. A paciente relatou uma boa adaptação das próteses e satisfação com o tratamento. O aumento da autoestima melhorou as atividades de socialização da criança. Neste estudo de caso, o uso de prótese com mini-implantes foi satisfatória para a retenção da prótese. No entanto, estudos clínicos longitudinais são necessários para testar os mini-implantes como uma alternativa para a reabilitação oral de crianças com displasia ectodérmica.
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of mutations in the amelogenin gene (AMELX) in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and enamel defects (ED). A total of 165 patients were divided into four groups: with CLP and ED (n=46), with CLP and without ED (n = 34), without CLP and with ED (n = 34), and without CLP or ED (n = 51). Genomic DNA was extracted from saliva followed by conducting a Polymerase Chain Reaction and direct DNA sequencing of exons 2 through 7 of AMELX. Mutations were found in 30% (n = 14), 35% (n = 12), 11% (n = 4) and 13% (n = 7) of the subjects from groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Thirty seven mutations were detected and distributed throughout exons 2 (1 mutation – 2.7%), 6 (30 mutations – 81.08%) and 7 (6 mutations – 16.22%) of AMELX. No mutations were found in exons 3, 4 or 5. Of the 30 mutations found in exon 6, 43.34% (n = 13), 23.33% (n = 7), 13.33% (n = 4) and 20% (n = 6) were found in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. c.261 C > T (rs2106416), a silent mutation, was detected in 26 subjects, and found more significantly (p = 0.003) in patients with CLP (groups 1 and 2 – 23.75%), compared with those without CLP (groups 3 and 4 – 8.23%). In the groups without ED, this silent mutation was also found more significantly (p = 0.032) among subjects with CLP (17.65% in group 2), compared with those without CLP (7.8% in group 4). In conclusion, this study suggested that AMELX may be a candidate gene for cleft lip and palate.