Nas últimas duas décadas os membros do gênero Enterococcus emergiram como importantes patógenos nosocomiais ao redor do mundo. No presente estudo, nós avaliamos a resistência antimicrobiana e as características genotípicas de 203 Enterococcus spp. obtidos de diferentes fontes clínicas em dois hospitais de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As espécies foram identificadas por testes bioquímicos convencionais e por um sistema automatizado. A diversidade genética de E. faecalis demonstrando resistência à altos níveis de aminoglicosídeos (HLAR) foi avaliada através da análise do DNA cromossômico após digestão com a enzima SmaI, seguido por eletroforese em campo pulsado. O E. faecalis foi a espécie mais freqüente (93,6%), seguido por E. faecium (4,4%). O perfil de resistência antimicrobiana foi: 2,5% para ampicilina, 0,5% para vancomicina, 0,5% para teicoplanina, 33% para cloranfenicol, 2% para nitrofurantoína 66,1% para eritromicina, 66,5% para tetraciclina, 24,6% para rifampicina, 30% para ciprofloxacino e 87,2% para quinupristina-dalfopristina. Um total de 10,3% dos isolados apresentaram HLAR para ambos gentamicina e estreptomicina (HLR-ST/GE), sendo 23,6% resistentes somente a gentamicina (HLR-GE) e 37,4% somente a estreptomicina (HLR-ST). Um grupo clonal predominante foi encontrado em E. faecalis HLR-GE/ST. A prevalência de resistência a antibióticos ²-lactâmicos, e em particular aos glicopeptídeos, foi muito baixa. Entretanto, neste estudo, houve um número crescente de Enterococcus HLAR que podem estar se disseminando intra e interhospitais.
In the past two decades the members of the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial resistance and genotypic characteristics of 203 Enterococcus spp. recovered from different clinical sources from two hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The species were identified by conventional biochemical tests and by an automated system. The genetic diversity of E. faecalis presenting high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA after SmaI digestion. The E. faecalis was the most frequent specie (93.6%), followed by E. faecium (4.4%). The antimicrobial resistance profile was: 2.5% to ampicillin, 0.5% to vancomycin, 0.5% teicoplanin, 33% to chloramphenicol, 2% to nitrofurantoin, 66.1% to erythromycin, 66.5% to tetracycline, 24.6% to rifampicin, 30% to ciprofloxacin and 87.2% to quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 10.3% of the isolates proved to be HLAR to both gentamicin and streptomycin (HLRST/GE), with 23.6% resistant only to gentamicin (HLR-GE) and 37.4% only to streptomycin (HLRST). One predominant clonal group was found among E. faecalis HLR-GE/ST. The prevalence of resistance among beta-lactam antibiotics and glycopeptides was very low. However, in this study there was an increased number of HLR Enterococcus which may be spreading intra and inter-hospital.
Meningitis is a severe and potentially fatal form of tuberculosis. The diagnostic workup involves detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by microscopy or culture, however, the difficulty in detecting the organism poses a challenge to diagnosis. The use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnostic approach to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) meningitis has been reported as a fast and accurate method, with several commercial kits available. As an alternative, some institutions have been developing inexpensive in house assays. In our institution, we use an in house PCR for tuberculosis. We analyzed the performance of our PCR for the diagnosis of MTB meningitis in 148 consecutive patients, using MTB culture as gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of CSF PCR for the diagnosis of MTB meningitis was 50% and 98.6% respectively with a concordance with CSF mycobacterial culture of 96% (Kappa=0.52). In contrast to CSF cultures for MTB, our PCR test is a fast, simple and inexpensive tool to diagnose tuberculous meningitis with a performance similar to that obtained with the available commercial kits.
A suscetibilidade in vitro de Staphylococcus aureus à vancomicina foi avaliada em pacientes internados em um Hospital Universitário Brasileiro pelo Etest e por um método de triagem. Nenhuma amostra de S. aureus resistente (VRSA) ou com resistência intermediária (VISA) à vancomicina foi isolada. Três pacientes tiveram amostras heteroresistentes VISA (h-VISA), mas nenhum destes recebeu vancomicina previamente.
The in vitro susceptibilty of Staphylococcus aureus to vancomycin was evaluated from impatients at a Brazilian University Hospital by the Etest and a screening method. No vancomycin intermediate (VISA) or vancomycin resistant (VRSA) S. aureus isolate was identified. Three patients presented as heteroresistant VISA (h-VISA) isolates but none of them received vancomycin previously.
We describe a case of clinical failure of vancomycin treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infection and the laboratory characteristics of the organism in a tertiary referral university hospital in southern Brazil. An 11-month-old male patient presented with pneumonia and S. aureus was isolated from his respiratory tract. Initial treatment with oxacillin and gentamicin was ineffective. Vancomycin was added to the regimen as the patient worsened, but after the 30th day of vancomycin treatment S. aureus was isolated from the blood. This isolate had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for vancomycin of 4 µg/mL. After pre-incubation with vancomycin the isolate displayed an increase in the expression of vancomycin resistance and colonies grew in the presence of up to 12 µg/mL vancomycin. Based on these results, and considering that the patient had not responded to vancomycin, the isolate was considered to be S. aureus heteroresistant to vancomycin (SAHV). The SAHV proved to be similar, based on DNA macrorestriction analysis, to methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates from other patients in the hospital who had responded to vancomycin treatment. Our findings underline the need to improve methods in the clinical laboratory to detect the emergence of S. aureus clinically resistant to vancomycin . The fact that the isolate emerged in the blood 30 days after vancomycin treatment was initiated suggests that the organism was originally an MRSA that had acquired the ability to circumvent the mechanism of action of vancomycin.