We evaluated the protein quality of organic and transgenic soy fed to rats throughout life. Thirty female Wistar rats were divided into three groups (N = 10): organic soy group (OSG) receiving organic soy-based diet, genetically modified soy group (GMSG) receiving transgenic soy-based diet, and a control group (CG) receiving casein-based diet. All animals received water and isocaloric diet (10% protein), ad libitum for 291 days. After this, the weight of GMSG animals (290.9 ± 9.1 g) was significantly lower (P <= 0.04) than CG (323.2 ± 7.9 g). The weight of OSG (302.2 ± 8.7 g) was between that of the GMSG and the CG. Protein intake was similar for OSG (308.4 ± 6.8 g) and GMSG (301.5 ± 2.5 g), and significantly lower (P <= 0.0005) than the CG (358.4 ± 8.1 g). Growth rate was similar for all groups: OSG (0.80 ± 0.02 g), GMSG (0.81 ± 0.03 g) and CG (0.75 ± 0.02 g). In addition to providing a good protein intake and inducing less weight gain, both types of soy were utilized in a manner similar to that of casein, suggesting that the protein quality of soy is similar to that of the standard protein casein. The groups fed soy-based diet gained less weight, which may be considered to be beneficial for health. We conclude that organic and transgenic soy can be fed throughout life to rats in place of animal protein, because contain high quality protein and do not cause a marked increase in body weight.