Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was considered a contraindication for solid organ transplantation (SOT) in the past. However, HIV management has improved since highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) became available in 1996, and the long-term survival of patients living with HIV has led many transplant programs to reevaluate their policies regarding the exclusion of patients with HIV infection. Based on the available data in the medical literature and the cumulative experience of transplantation in HIV-positive patients at our hospital, the aim of the present article is to outline the criteria for transplantation in HIV-positive patients as recommended by the Immunocompromised Host Committee of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo.
Summary The yellow fever (YF) virus is a Flavivirus, transmitted by Haemagogus, Sabethes or Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The disease is endemic in forest areas in Africa and Latin America leading to epizootics in monkeys that constitute the reservoir of the disease. There are two forms of YF: sylvatic, transmitted accidentally when approaching the forests, and urban, which can be perpetuated by Aedes aegypti. In Brazil, the last case of urban YF occurred in 1942. Since then, there has been an expansion of transmission areas from the North and Midwest regions to the South and Southeast. In 2017, the country faced an important outbreak of the disease mainly in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. In 2018, its reach extended from Minas Gerais toward São Paulo. Yellow fever has an incubation period of 3 to 6 days and sudden onset of symptoms with high fever, myalgia, headache, nausea/vomiting and increased transaminases. The disease ranges from asymptomatic to severe forms. The most serious forms occur in around 15% of those infected, with high lethality rates. These forms lead to renal, hepatic and neurological impairment, and bleeding episodes. Treatment of mild and moderate forms is symptomatic, while severe and malignant forms depend on intensive care. Prevention is achieved by administering the vaccine, which is an effective (immunogenicity at 90-98%) and safe (0.4 severe events per 100,000 doses) measure. In 2018, the first transplants in the world due to YF were performed. There is also an attempt to evaluate the use of active drugs against the virus in order to reduce disease severity.
Abstract Chikungunya fever has become a relevant public health problem in countries where epidemics occur. Until 2013, only imported cases occurred in the Americas, but in October of that year, the first cases were reported in Saint Marin island in the Caribbean. The first autochthonous cases were confirmed in Brazil in September 2014; until epidemiological week 37 of 2016, 236,287 probable cases of infection with Chikungunya virus had been registered, 116,523 of which had serological confirmation. Environmental changes caused by humans, disorderly urban growth and an ever-increasing number of international travelers were described as the factors responsible for the emergence of large-scale epidemics. Clinically characterized by fever and joint pain in the acute stage, approximately half of patients progress to the chronic stage (beyond 3 months), which is accompanied by persistent and disabling pain. The aim of the present study was to formulate recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of Chikungunya fever in Brazil. A literature review was performed in the MEDLINE, SciELO and PubMed databases to ground the decisions for recommendations. The degree of concordance among experts was established through the Delphi method, involving 2 in-person meetings and several online voting rounds. In total, 25 recommendations were formulated and divided into 3 thematic groups: (1) clinical, laboratory and imaging diagnosis; (2) special situations; and (3) treatment. The first 2 themes are presented in part 1, and treatment is presented in part 2.
Resumo A febre chikungunya tem se tornado um importante problema de saúde pública nos países onde ocorrem as epidemias. Até 2013, as Américas haviam registrado apenas casos importados quando, em outubro desse mesmo ano, foram notificados os primeiros casos na Ilha de Saint Martin, no Caribe. No Brasil, os primeiros relatos autóctones foram confirmados em setembro de 2014 e até a semana epidemiológica 37 de 2016 já haviam sido registrados 236.287 casos prováveis de infecção pelo chikungunya vírus (CHIKV), 116.523 confirmados sorologicamente. As mudanças ambientais causadas pelo homem, o crescimento urbano desordenado e o número cada vez maior de viagens internacionais têm sido apontados como os fatores responsáveis pela reemergência de epidemias em grande escala. Caracterizada clinicamente por febre e dor articular na fase aguda, em cerca de metade dos casos existe evolução para a fase crônica (além de três meses), com dor persistente e incapacitante. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar recomendações para diagnóstico e tratamento da febre chikungunya no Brasil. Para isso, foi feita revisão da literatura nas bases de dados Medline, SciELO e PubMed, para dar apoio às decisões tomadas para definir as recomendações. Para a definição do grau de concordância foi feita uma metodologia Delphi, em duas reuniões presenciais e várias rodadas de votação on line. Foram geradas 25 recomendações, divididas em três grupos temáticos: (1) diagnóstico clínico, laboratorial e por imagem; (2) situações especiais e (3) tratamento. Na primeira parte estão os dois primeiros temas e o tratamento na segunda.
Abstract Chikungunya fever has become an important public health problem in countries where epidemics occur because half of the cases progress to chronic, persistent and debilitating arthritis. Literature data on specific therapies at the various phases of arthropathy caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection are limited, lacking quality randomized trials assessing the efficacies of different therapies. There are a few studies on the treatment of musculoskeletal manifestations of chikungunya fever, but these studies have important methodological limitations. The data currently available preclude conclusions favorable or contrary to specific therapies, or an adequate comparison between the different drugs used. The objective of this study was to develop recommendations for the treatment of chikungunya fever in Brazil. A literature review was performed via evidence-based selection of articles in the databases Medline, SciELO, PubMed and Embase and conference proceedings abstracts, in addition to expert opinions to support decision-making in defining recommendations. The Delphi method was used to define the degrees of agreement in 2 face-to-face meetings and several online voting rounds. This study is part 2 of the Recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia - SBR) for the Diagnosis and Treatment of chikungunya fever and specifically addresses treatment.
Resumo A febre chikungunya tem se tornado um importante problema de saúde pública nos países onde ocorrem as epidemias, visto que metade dos casos evolui com artrite crônica, persistente e incapacitante. Os dados na literatura sobre terapêuticas específicas nas diversas fases da artropatia ocasionada pela infecção pelo vírus chikungunya (CHIKV) são limitados, não existem estudos randomizados de qualidade que avaliem a eficácia das diferentes terapias. Há algumas poucas publicações sobre o tratamento das manifestações musculoesqueléticas da febre chikungunya, porém com importantes limitações metodológicas. Os dados atualmente disponíveis não permitem conclusões favoráveis ou contrárias a terapêuticas específicas, bem como uma adequada avaliação quanto à superioridade entre as diferentes medicações empregadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar recomendações para o tratamento da febre chikungunya no Brasil. Foi feita uma revisão da literatura com seleção de artigos baseados em evidência, nas bases de dados Medline, SciELO, PubMed e Embase e de resumos de anais de congressos, além da opinião dos especialistas para dar apoio às decisões tomadas para definir as recomendações. Para a definição do grau de concordância foi feita uma metodologia Delphi, em duas reuniões presenciais e várias rodadas de votação on line. Este artigo refere-se à parte 2 das Recomendações da Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia para Diagnóstico e Tratamento da Febre Chikungunya, que trata especificamente do tratamento.
ABSTRACT Despite recent advances in therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC), the disease caused by genotype 3 virus (GEN3) is still considered a treatment challenge in certain patient subgroups. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the peginterferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) combination treatment for GEN3/CHC patients, and to evaluate sustained virological response (SVR) indicators and early treatment interruption due to serious adverse events (SAE). This was a retrospective observational study of GEN3/CHC patients, co-infected or not by HIV and treated with Peg-IFN/RBV in nine Brazilian healthcare centers. The study sample included 184 GEN3/CHC patients; 70 (38%) were co-infected with HIV. The overall SVR rate was 57.1% (95% CI 50-64). Among co-infected and mono-infected patients, the SVR rate was 51.4% (36/70) and 60.5% (69/114), respectively (p=0.241). Thirty-four (18.5%) patients experienced SAE and interrupted treatment. SVR was negatively associated with the use of Peg-IFN alpha 2b (PR 0.75; 95% CI 0.58-0.99; p=0.045) and to early treatment interruption due to SAE (PR 0.36; 95% CI 0.20-0.68; p=0.001). Early treatment interruption due to SAE was associated with age (PR 1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.10; p<0.001) and occurrence of liver cirrhosis (PR 2.06; 95% CI 1.11-3.83; p=0.022). In conclusion, Peg-IFN/RBV might represent an adequate treatment option, mainly in young patients without advanced liver disease or when the use of direct-action drugs is limited to specific patient groups.