ABSTRACT Gout is considered the most common form of inflammatory arthritis in men over 40 years. The authors present a brief review of the current treatment of gout and discuss the existing pharmacological limitations in Brazil for the treatment of this disease. Although allopurinol is still the main drug administered for decreasing serum levels of uric acid in gout patients in this country, the authors also present data that show a great opportunity for the Brazilian drug market for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout and especially for patients using private and public (SUS) health care systems.
RESUMO A gota é considerada a forma mais comum de artrite inflamatória em homens acima de 40 anos. Os autores apresentam uma breve revisão sobre o tratamento atual da gota e discutem as limitações farmacológicas existentes no Brasil para o tratamento dessa enfermidade. Apesar de o alopurinol ainda ser a principal medicação para a redução dos níveis de uricemia de pacientes com gota no país, os autores também apresentam dados que apontam para uma grande oportunidade para o mercado farmacológico brasileiro em relação ao tratamento da hiperuricemia e da artrite gotosa e especialmente para pacientes usuários de sistemas privados de saúde e do SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde).
ABSTRACT Objectives To identify a clinical profile and laboratory findings of a cohort of hypoparathyroidism patients and determine the prevalence and predictors for renal abnormalities. Materials and methods Data from medical records of five different visits were obtained, focusing on therapeutic doses of calcium and vitamin D, on laboratory tests and renal ultrasonography (USG). Results Fifty-five patients were identified, 42 females and 13 males; mean age of 44.5 and average time of the disease of 11.2 years. The most frequent etiology was post-surgical. Levels of serum calcium and creatinine increased between the first and last visits (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively); and serum levels of phosphate decreased during the same period (p < 0.001). Out of the 55 patients, 40 had USG, and 10 (25%) presented with kidney calcifications. There was no significant difference in the amount of calcium and vitamin D doses among patients with kidney calcifications and others. No correlation between serum and urinary levels of calcium and the presence of calcification was found. Urinary calcium excretion in 24h was significantly higher in patients with kidney calcification (3.3 mg/kg/d) than in those without calcification (1.8 mg/kg/d) (p < 0.05). Conclusions The reduction of hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia suggest an effectiveness of the treatment, and the increase in serum creatinine demonstrates an impairment of renal function during follow-up. Kidney calcifications were prevalent in this cohort, and higher urinary calcium excretion, even if still within the normal range, was associated with development of calcification. These findings suggest that lower rates of urinary calcium excretion should be aimed for in the management of hypoparathyroidism.