In this work, we studied the formation of hierarchical porous cartridges by means of bacterial cellulose impregnation with the zeolites A and X. Cellulose was successfully produced by Komagataeibacter genus and the zeolites were obtained by hydrothermal route. The composites were formed using both oxidized and non-oxidized cellulose. Different characterization techniques were used to analyze the resulting materials like powder X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic techniques (infrared vibrational spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance), electron microscopy, thermal analyses, as well as ionic exchange experiments. The results show that the composites present layers with large voids among them, formed by cellulose nanofibrils tangling the particles in the oxidized samples, and shiftings in the bands referent to the carboxilyc groups and hydrogen bondings. The oxidation step for the cellulose seems to be important for the hierarchization and a positive effect on the cartridges is found for Ca2+ ionic exchange tests. Thus, these components can be successfully mixed to form cartridges with potential use at gas and liquid adsorption technologies.
Coprecipitation is one of the most practical methods used to synthesize ferrite nanoparticles. Fine characteristics of these materials can be improved by means of a series of modifications in the synthesis method. In this paper we present a study of influence of glycerol as structure directing and stabilizing agent in the synthesis of zinc ferrite nanoparticle, exploring its chelating capacity and oxidation. The studied materials include two series of zinc ferrite samples and its precursors obtained with or without glycerol throughout different stages during the synthesis process. The structural and morphological characteristics were evaluated by means of different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and thermal analysis. The oxidation of glycerol was determined by high-performance liquid chromatograph. The obtained results demonstrate that zinc ferrite crystals synthesized in the presence of glycerol are initially bigger than those synthesized in absence of it, but according to the oxidation process they tend to decrease giving rise to intermediate phases. Interestingly, these samples grow back during more advanced stages and become structurally better organized, compared to the series of samples produced in absence of glycerol. These results indicate that glycerol is capable to modify the synthesis route of zinc ferrite nanoparticles via coprecipitation, acting directly over the size and morphology of the crystals.
The mesoporous material Al-Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 (Al-MCM-41) was successfully obtained from kaolin, a low cost raw material, by means of hydrothermal route. The process of synthesis of Al-MCM-41 was based on calcination of kaolin, dealumination by acid treatment, hydrothermal synthesis in alkaline medium and surfactant extraction. The characterization of the obtained mesoporous material was carried out by techniques such as: X-ray diffraction, infrared vibrational spectroscopy, 29Si and 27Al solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption. The X-ray diffraction at low angles allowed the determination of the cell parameter, which was 4.02 nm. The analyses of scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed important morphological properties of the synthesized material. N2 adsorption/desorption showed a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area of 1,303 m2 g-1, pore volume of 1.23 cm3 g-1 and average diameter of 2.45 nm. The mesoporous material presented a maximum adsorption capacity of 316 mg g-1 for the cationic dye methylene blue (MB) in a concentration typical of industrial effluents, which makes it a potential adsorbent for MB removal from wastewaters.
A method based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection was described for the pesticides dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethoprophos, parathion methyl, fenchlorphos, chlorpyrifos, azinphos methyl and prothiofos in sapodilla. For all compounds studies, it was observed a strong matrix effect showing the need to use matrix matched calibration strategy. Method was validated, and good linearity (R > 0.99) was obtained for all pesticides studied with limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranging from 0.01 to 0.06 mg kg-1 and 0.03 to 0.2 mg kg-1, respectively. Recovery studies were performed at different levels (0.08, 0.10, 0.14, 0.20, 0.35 and 1.17 mg kg-1) and showed good results (between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviation (RSD) < 20%). A statistical test was applied to the coefficients of the analytical curves obtained in the sapodilla matrix. Analyses of commercial samples showed chlorpyrifos were detected in about 70 and 33% for fruit and pulps samples, respectively. It should be noted that chlorpyrifos is not permitted in sapodilla crops by ANVISA and EC guidelines.
The anaerobic decomposition in landfills produces a gas mixture known as landfill biogas. This biogas consists mainly of CH4 and CO2. The CO2 removal can be carried out by means of adsorption. In order to promote CO2 removal, zeolite type 4A was used as solid adsorbent. The synthesized zeolite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. CH4/CO2 mixture isotherms were obtained in a magnetic suspension balance equipped with a gas dosing unit and Extended Langmuir and Extended Sips models were used to predict mixture isotherms from monocomponent data. Three biogas emissions drains in a sanitary landfill in Caucaia (Ceará State, Brazil) - ASMOC - were chosen to test the performance of zeolite as CO2 adsorbent under real conditions. Zeolite 4A has proven to be very selective for CO2 even in the presence of H2S.
<p>An efficient, fast and cost-effective method for detecting adulteration in perfumes by UV spectroscopy and multivariate analysis is proposed. Classification of perfumes, either as original or fake, was accomplished with the spectroscopic data using chemometric techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA).</p>