OBJECTIVE: Screening for HBV among groups at risk, such as migrant populations, has proved to be a cost-effective strategy. With a view to advising local policy-makers, the cost-consequences of HBV screening was assessed using a modeling approach. METHODS: This cost-consequence analysis of an HBV screening strategy was conducted in a cohort of adult migrants in the province of Padua, northern Italy. RESULTS: The population targeted for screening consisted of 65405 migrants, among whom the weighted rate for the prevalence of HBV was 0.04972, with 3251 people infected. Over a period of 5 years, the screening strategy prevented 565 cases/year of chronic hepatitis, 141 of compensated cirrhosis, 9 of decompensated cirrhosis, 14 hepatocellular carcinomas and 12 deaths. The above data revealed that the incremental cost of the screening strategy compared to no screening strategy was 7 974 959 over the five year period. The cost per life saved amounted to 676 709. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides useful information to policy-makers at local and regional levels.