Abstract Purpose Changrui enema, a traditional Chinese medicine prescription, is used as a supplementary treatment for acute radiation proctitis (ARP). Herein we explored the inhibition effects of Changrui enema on NF-κB and VEGF in ARP mice. Methods A total of 120 C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into normal mice group, ARP mice group, western medicine enema group (dexamethasone combined with gentamicin), and Changrui enema group. ARP mice were established by pelvic local irradiation. The expression of IL-1β, NF-κB, VEGF, AQP1, AQP3, p-ERK1/2 and p-JNK was determined by immunohistochemistry or western blot. Results The study firstly found that Changrui enema alleviated ARP mice. The expression of IL-1β, NF-κB, VEGF, AQP1 and p-ERK1/2 was increased in ARP mice, and was reserved by Changrui enema. However, the expression of AQP3 and p-JNK was decreased in ARP mice, and was up-regulated by Changrui enema. Conclusions Changrui enema is an effective treatment with fewer side effects for ARP. The mechanism of Changrui enema may be related to the inhibition of inflammation-induced angiogenesis. Changrui enema inhibits IL-1β and NF-κB expression as well as VEGF expression. Interestingly, AQP1 promotes angiogenesis, while AQP3 inhibits inflammation. Changrui enema probably inhibits AQP1 expression by down-regulating p-ERK1/2, and improves AQP3 expression by up-regulating p-JNK.
Effects of forming pores in Zr70Cu30 metallic glass on the deformation behaviour is investigated through molecular dynamics simulations. The formation of pores leads to only a small reduction in strength, but dramatically enhanced plasticity in compression. The large plasticity of glass is attributed to the large effective free space induced by forming pores. It can also promote formation of crystalline phases in the amorphous matrix during deformation. Simulation reproduces the images of the evolution of pores in the metallic glass. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental results.