Abstract Limited initiation energy or external stimulation may cause incomplete detonation in a warhead. At present, there is no quantitative method to characterize the energy release of a warhead charge for incomplete detonation such as explosion and deflagration. We propose a method based on average fragment quality to characterize the energy released by a warhead charge. The theoretical study shows that the average fragment quality after warhead initiation is inversely proportional to the initial fragment velocity. The relationship between the average fragment quality and explosive energy release is established and verified by experiment. This relation can be used to determine the charge energy released after warhead initiation. It provides a theoretical basis for optimizing efficiency of charge energy use in high-energy conventional damage technology and warhead design, and provides a quantitative method for evaluating insensitive ammunition.
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of intermittent vibration at different intervals on bone fracture healing and optimize the vibration interval. Methods: Ninety sheep were randomized to receive no treatment (the control group), incision only (the sham control group), internal fixation with or without metatarsal fracture (the internal fixation group), and continuous vibration in addition to internal fixation of metatarsal fracture, or intermittent vibration at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 17-day interval in addition to internal fixation of metatarsal fracture (the vibration group). Vibration was done at frequency F=35 Hz, acceleration a=0.25g, 15 min each time 2 weeks after bone fracture. Bone healing was evaluated by micro-CT scan, bone microstructure and mechanical compression of finite element simulation. Results: Intermittent vibration at 7-day interval significantly improved bone fracture healing grade. However, no significant changes on microstructure parameters and mechanical properties were observed among sheep receiving vibration at different intervals. Conclusions: Clinical healing effects should be the top concern. Quantitative analyses of bone microstructure and of finite element mechanics on the process of fracture healing need to be further investigated.